Tech Tuesday - Cup and Cone Hub Rebuild

Nov 8, 2011
by Mike Levy  
How do they work? A cup and cone hub makes use of loose ball bearings and allows you to easily adjust bearing tension, unlike most sealed bearing hubs that don't allow for any adjustment. They consist of the "cup" that acts as the bearing's outer race, which is pressed into the hub shell and not replaceable, and the "cone" that serves as the inner race and threads onto the axle. The hub bearings, which are usually 1/4" in rear hubs and 3/16" in front hubs, spin between the cup and cone. Bearing tension is adjusted be threading the cone down on the axle, and then locking its position in place with the locknut (a spacer between the cone and locknut allows you to tighten the two against each other easily). Front cup and cone hubs are usually symmetrical, although the hub will be offset slightly to compensate for its rotor disc rotor mounting. Rear hubs use a freehub (the clutch mechanism that allows you to coast) and the driveside cone and locknut can be found set within, sometimes hidden from view. You can learn more about cup and cone hubs by checking out last week's Tech Tuesday.

Tech Tuesday
Cup and cone hub components (from left to right): locknut, thin washer, and the cone.

Some helpful pointers before you begin:

• While a crescent wrench can be used to loosen a locknut, you'll need a cone wrench to fit in-between the locknut and the cone's shoulder. Take your wheel down with you to your local shop and find the correct size to fit.
• 13, 15 and 17mm cone wrenches are commonly required for to work on a front hub, 17 and 19mm are usually needed for rear hubs.
• A thick, water resistant grease is best for use within hubs.
• Front hubs usually use ten 3/16" balls per side, rear hubs nine 1/4" balls per side. This isn't always the case though - count the number of balls per side before removing them.
• Ball bearings can be found at your local shop and are inexpensive. If you're going to take the time to rebuild your hub you should also replace the bearings.
• You are going to have many small parts on your workbench. Lay them out in order as you remove them from the hub.
• It is very important that the ends of the axle do not protrude out too far beyond the locknut. If this is the case the wheel will not be able to be tightened down in the frame or fork. The axle should never extend to the outer face of the dropouts. Axle protrusion should also be even on both sides.
• Your goal should be to adjust the hub so that it has the least amount of bearing tension without being loose. Hubs with damaged bearing surfaces may not spin smooth when setup correctly.

Tech Tuesday
The proper sized cone wrenches and grease are mandatory for this job, but a magnet, crescent wrench and axle clamp can also be of use.

How tight is right? It is important to note that adjusting the hub bearings tighter than required will not in any way keep them from coming loose sooner, but will actually increase wear on all components. A loose ball hub that has been ridden with too much bearing tension will likely have damaged both the cone and cup, possibly requiring the hub to be replaced. The same will result from riding a hub that is too loose. So, how do you know when it is set correctly?

Ideally, a quick release hub should have a slight amount of knocking or looseness to it when it is not clamped in the frame or fork. This is because the hollow axle will flex a small amount when the quick release is clamped down properly, taking up that loose feeling. If a quick release hub has no play in it when it is out of the bike it is likely too tight. This does not apply to solid axles that use wheel nuts to hold them in place. That all gets thrown out the window if the hub uses a bent axle, or damaged cup and cone. Replace the parts as needed for it to be adjusted correctly.

What's needed:

Cone wrenches (13, 15, 17 and 19mm are all common sizes)
Adjustable wrench (optional)
• Axle clamp (you'll also need a vice to use this)
• Magnet (optional)
• Clean rag

Tech Tuesday
Step 1 - Remove the wheel from the bike and take out the quick release, being careful not to lose the centering springs on each side. Most loose ball hubs use a rubber dust shield that will need to be taken off in order to access the wrench flats. If you are working on a rear hub you'll also need to remove the cassette. Count the number of exposed threads on the end of the axle before continuing to the next step. If the axle uses unthreaded ends, like shown above, you can use a caliper to take a measurement.
Tech Tuesday
Step 2 - Always disassemble the disc side of rear hubs, and the non-disc side of front hubs. You now need to unlock the cones and remove them from one side of the hub. Do this by holding the cone with the correct size cone wrench while turning the locknut counter clockwise with either a cone wrench or a crescent wrench. You can also use an axle clamp (optional) to hold the axle in a vice while loosening the locknut.
Tech Tuesday
Step 3 - With the wheel face up on the countertop to prevent parts from falling out, unthread and remove the locknut, thin washer and cone from the axle. Put this in a safe place in the same order that they were removed in.
Tech Tuesday
Step 4 - Remove the axle by pulling it out slowly from the opposite side, being careful not to lose any ball bearings as you do so. Always take note of which side of the hub you are removing the axle from to avoid confusion when reassembling.
Tech Tuesday
Step 5 - At this point you should have the cone, washer(s) and locknut removed, along with the axle itself. Some hubs will use one thicker washer between the cone and locknut, while others will use multiple thin washers. The washers not only allow the cone and locknut to be tightened against each other without coming loose, but are also vital for proper spacing. Always assemble the hub with the same washers, in the same order, as it was taken apart. Take a few minutes to give the axle and other parts a proper cleaning at this point.
Tech Tuesday
Step 7 - Now is also a good time to be sure that the opposite side is tightened correctly. Hold the cone in place firmly with the cone wrench while checking the locknut with either a cone wrench or crescent wrench by turning it clockwise.
Tech Tuesday
Step 8 - Count the number of ball bearings on each side before removing them. Front hubs usually use ten 3/16" balls per side, rear hubs nine 1/4" balls per side, although that isn't always the case.
Tech Tuesday
Step 9 - A magnet will make removing the bearings easy, but it isn't required. If you don't have a magnet on hand you can simply use the tip of a screw driver to dislodge the balls, or they will often fall out on their own. Double check the center bore of the hub to be sure that no stray bearings are hiding within. Many loose ball ball hubs will use metal dust caps that are pressed into place (the silver ring surrounding the bearings in the photo above) and not meant to be removed. While you can pop them out with a screwdriver, this will often damage them. You're far better off to leave them in place.
Tech Tuesday
Step 10 - Your goal is to get all of the old grease, along with the grime and minute metal shavings that may be present in it, out of the hub's bearings surface. A rag wrapped around your finger will do the job, although you may find it easier to use a Q-Tip to reach in. Now is also the time to closely inspect the bearing surfaces on both the cup and the cone. They should be smooth and free of any pitting or uneven wear that will cause the hub to spin roughly. If you find damage on a cone you should take it to your local shop for them to match it up with a new one (there are many, many different sizes). Unfortunately, there isn't much to do about a damaged cup - these are pressed into the hub and not replaceable. A nice, thick grease can go a long way to hiding any imperfections, but a worn cup is often the death knell of a hub.
Tech Tuesday
Step 11 - Grease is your friend. Lay a thick bead onto the bearing surface of the cup, making sure to have it completely cover its circumference. This will also help hold the balls in place. Install the ball bearings carefully in both sides, using the same amount on each side as when you took the hub apart.
Tech Tuesday
Step 12 - Once the bearings are in place it's time to reinstall the axle. Before doing so, apply a bead of grease to the bearing surface on the cone. Take note of which side you are putting the axle in from, as it needs to be on the same side as you removed it. For front hubs you should be inserting in from the non-disc side, rear hubs from the drive side. Be careful not to knock any ball bearings free.
Tech Tuesday
Step 13 - Reinstall the cone after giving the bearing surface a smear of grease, followed by the correct washer(s) and the locknut. Turn the cone clockwise until it comes into contact with the bearings and then back it off one quarter of a turn.
Tech Tuesday
Step 14 - Use the cone wrench to hold the cone in place while you tighten down the locknut onto it with another wrench. The hub will likely require further adjustment, but it is important to keep in mind that quick release hub bearing adjustment may feel slightly loose when the wheel is not clamped into place, but then be free of any play once installed. This is because a hollow quick release axle flexes slightly as it is tightened down.

Turn the quick release hub's axle with your fingers - it should spin smoothly, but have a slight about of play. Install it in the frame or fork and feel for play by holding the top of the wheel and rocking it back it fork. If there is no play, and the wheel turns smoothly, you are done. If not, continue with the steps below.
Tech Tuesday
Step 15 - Remove the hub's rubber dust covers and quick release springs (so that the QR nut makes contact only with the outer hub's locknut) and clamp the wheel to the outside of the bike's rear tringle, with the side you are adjusting facing out. Quick release clamping force should be roughly the same as when the wheel is installed on the bike to be ridden.
Tech Tuesday
Step 16 - Place one hand over the out facing cone and locknut, and the other out at the rim. Gently rock the rim back and forth while feeling for play at the hub with your other hand. If any knocking is felt you'll have to snug the hub's bearing adjustment up slightly.
Tech Tuesday
Step 18 - Hold the cone in place carefully with one wrench while using another to loosen the locknut by turning it counter clockwise. Once the locknut is loose, turn the wrench holding the cone clockwise by about ten degrees. Hold the cone in place while you retighten the locknut down onto it. Recheck for any free play by redoing step 16, and if any is felt repeat this process until it is gone. Take your time and make small adjustments at each go - it will likely take you at least a few tries to get it perfect.

The final test is to open the quick release lever slightly (so that it rests at 45 degrees, but still holds the wheel in the dropout) and feel for knocking in the hub. There should be a slight amount, but it should disappear once the QR lever is retightened.

Count the number of protruding axle threads on each side, making sure that they match up to before you took the hub apart and are even on each side. Wipe away any excess grease.

Do you have any pointers on how to adjust cup and cone hub bearings? Share them below!

Past Tech Tuesdays:

Tech Tuesday #1 - How to change a tube.
Tech Tuesday #2 - How to set up your SRAM rear derailleur
Tech Tuesday #3 - How to remove and install pedals
Tech Tuesday #4 - How To Bleed Your Avid Elixir Brakes
Tech Tuesday #5 - How To Check And Adjust Your Headset
Tech Tuesday #6 - How To Fix A Broken Chain
Tech Tuesday #7 - Tubeless Conversion
Tech Tuesday #8 - Chain Wear
Tech Tuesday #9 - SRAM Shift Cable Replacement
Tech Tuesday #10 - Removing And Installing a Headset
Tech Tuesday #11 - Chain Lube Explained
Tech Tuesday #12 - RockShox Totem and Lyric Mission Control Damper Mod
Tech Tuesday #13 - Shimano XT Crank and Bottom Bracket Installation
Tech Tuesday #14 - Straightening Your Derailleur Hanger
Tech Tuesday #15 - Setting Up Your Front Derailleur
Tech Tuesday #16 - Setting Up Your Cockpit
Tech Tuesday #17 - Suspension Basics
Tech Tuesday #18 - Adjusting The Fox DHX 5.0
Tech Tuesday #19 - Adjusting The RockShox BoXXer World Cup
Tech Tuesday #20 - Servicing Your Fox Float Shock
Tech Tuesday #21 - Wheel Truing Basics
Tech Tuesday #22 - Shimano Brake Pad Replacement
Tech Tuesday #23 - Shimano brake bleed
Tech Tuesday #24 - Fox Lower Leg Removal And Service
Tech Tuesday #25 - RockShox Motion Control Service
Tech Tuesday #26 - Avid BB7 Cable Disk Brake Setup
Tech Tuesday #27 - Manitou Dorado Fork Rebuild
Tech Tuesday #28 - Manitou Circus Fork Rebuild
Tech Tuesday #29 - MRP G2 SL Chain Guide Install
Tech Tuesday #30 - Cane Creek Angleset Installation
Tech Tuesday #31 - RockShox Maxle Lite DH
Tech Tuesday #32 - Find Your Tire Pressure Sweet Spot
Tech Tuesday #33 - Three Minute Bike Preflight Check
Tech Tuesday #34 - MRP XCG Install
Tech Tuesday #35 - Stem Choice and Cockpit Setup
Tech Tuesday #36 - Handlebars - How Wide Affects Your Ride
Tech Tuesday #37 - Repairing A Torn Tire
Tech Tuesday #38 - Coil spring swap
Tech Tuesday #39 - Trailside help: Broken Shift Cable
Tech Tuesday #40 - Installing a Fox Float Air-Volume Spacer
Tech Tuesday #41 - Replace the Seals on Your 2011 RockShox Boxxer World Cup Fork
Tech Tuesday #42 - Clean and Lubricate Your Fox F32 Dust Wiper Seals
Tech Tuesday #43 - Thread Locker Basics
Tech Tuesday #44 - Install a SRAM X.0 Two-By-Ten Crankset
Tech Tuesday #45 - VPP Suspension Bearing Service
Tech Tuesday #46 - Rotor Straightening
Tech Tuesday #47 - Finding and fixing that creak
Tech Tuesday #48 - Bleed and Service Magura Marta Disc Brakes
Tech Tuesday #49 - Cup and Cone Hub Basics
Tech Tuesday #50 - Install and Adjust Pedal Cleats

Visit to see their entire lineup of tools and lubes


  • + 41
 Step 12 "Be careful not to knock any bearings free."
Step 13 Re-insert bearings that dropped into the centre of the hub when you turned around to grab the axle
Step 14 Be careful not to knock any bearings free
Step 15 Why is did the axle push a bearing out the opposite end?
Step 16 Remove axle and replace bearing.
Step 17 Be careful not to knock any bearings free.
Step 18 Pick up bearing that dropped onto the floor. Wipe off dust and dirt that stuck to the grease. Clean bearing and replace.
Step 19 Be careful not to knock any bearings free...Smile
  • + 3
 Hahaha it goes pretty much like that!
  • + 12
 AGAIN WITH THE PICTURES...... what the hell is wrong with the good old, hello and welcome to tech tuesday VIDEO!?
  • + 12
 @Dhracer97 - Good to hear that you appreciate the effort on our part... It all comes down to time: making the Tech Tuesday videos takes about six times the time to do when compared to shooting photos. As much as I'd like to spend 24 hours a day making content, I need to sleep at some point. Also, many riders do prefer the step by step photos that can be printed off and are sometimes easier to follow.

The videos will return in the future for certain repairs.
  • + 6
 i think the photos make sense for some tech tuesdays and others the video. perhaps some even demand both?
  • + 2
 ^ I agree that perhaps photos are superior sometimes - imagine the first photo set as a zoomed in video - yick!
  • + 4
 I like the pictures myself. Mike Levy has quickly become my favourite Pinkbike writer. Keep up the good work.
  • + 11
 I've rebuilt a ton of hubs in my time, so here's a couple of tips that I've learned over the years...

1. when you've got the hub re-assembled ( and before you tighten the lock-nut ), hold the wheel out in front of you and give it a gentle spin while holding the axle in your hands. You'll be able to feel the hub as it spins. If it feels silky smooth, with no slop, then you've got the cones tight enough... but if you can feel small lumps ( you'll feel each ball bearing as it rolls ) as the hub spins, then you've got the cone too tight, so back it off a tiny bit at a time until that lump feeling goes away.

2. when tightening the lock nut, I've found that if you over tighten the cone just a tad, then once you tighten the outer lock nut, you'll have the correct tightness on the cone... I've found that when you tighten the outer lock nut, the cone will tend to twist a bit as well, resulting in a loose, sloppy feeling cone. By giving the cone just a titch ( 1/16 extra turn ) more tightening before tightening the outer lock ring, it will loosen just enough to nestle in that perfect spot you want.

I've done this tons of times, and have gotten perfect rolling, silky smooth hubs every time... I've even fooled mechanics, as they thought that I had tossed the used hubs I purcahsed from them and replaced them with brand new ones. Wink
  • + 1
 "Always disassemble the disc side of rear hubs, and the non-disc side of front hubs."

Unfortunately, I'm stuck with v-brakes. For the front hub, would the non-disc side be the right/drive side? My hubs are in great need of service!
  • + 2
 disk side = opposite of drive side
  • + 9
 I have one tip - if you have completely dismantled or replaced the axle and need to know how much axle pokes out from the outer locking nut (mentioned in the last part of Step 18 ), just take the hub width away from the axle width and divide by two. E.g.:
135mm hub spacing with 145mm axle.
(145-135)/2 = 5mm of protuding axle.

I know it sounds obvious but in my early days I spent ages trying to centre the nuts/cones etc on an axle.
  • + 7
 You shouldn't use a magnet to remove the loose balls unless you're replacing the balls. After being picked out by the magnet, they will become slightly magnetized, and they will tend to attract all the minute wear particles if they are re-used.
  • + 3
 set them on a table and a slight tap with a non-magnetized screw driver on each bearing will de-magnetize them. then you have no problem. besides, i doubt they will become magnetized at all, you need to strike them with a magnet to magnetize them and strike them with a not magnet to de-magnetize them, and your not striking it with the magnet when you use the magnet to get them out.
  • + 2
 Any contact with a magnet will magnetize them.
  • + 9
 Putting the hub into the drop out "backwards" is brilliant! Great tip Mike!
  • + 2
 Another small tip to make life easier: lay a towel on the work bench when you remove and reinstall the ball bearings.
In case you drop one you wont have to chase it around the floor!
  • + 2
 I've done that shyte, looking for a missing ball (bearing ball!!!) for an hour or so...
  • + 3
 I guess when I've bought bearings I always buy in bulk, but if I ever drop them on the floor I don't reuse them. Then agian, I'm working over the concrete floor of my basement where they will get flat spots if they impact the floor. I do always go back to look for them though, you'll only not do it once when you slip and fall on a bearing!
  • + 1
 Good comment phranquy, never thought about that.
  • + 2
 "Unfortunately, there isn't much to do about a damaged cup - these are pressed into the hub and not replaceable." This is incorrect! You have to be pretty skilled with a hammer and punch, and be extremely careful at the same time to make the inner race comes out without digging into the shell and ruining the hub. But it can be done. I've barely reached double figures on this but have yet to have it go wrong. You just need a whole new hub to strip down and get the inner race too as they're not sold at all. That and if you're doing it you've got a dead hub already, can't make it any more fubar'd than not useable.
  • + 1
 True! Sometimes I do complete re-builds on 8- and 9- spd Campy road wheels from the 90's, for customers who have pitted races but don't want to replace ALL of their components. With Shimano you'd have to gaffle races from other hubs, I'd guess, but Campy makes all the small parts available - as long as you don't mind paying 250 bucks for a rear hub overhaul!
  • + 2
 High end Shimano hubs have bearings that are individually laser measured for tolerance to best match the exact size of the cup that they are going to be used with. For this reason it's best to re-pack often but re-use the same high quality bearings, as they are a better fit and very likely a better quality than your LBS is likely to have in stock.
  • + 1
 I'm hoping someone can help me here. This is my first time re-buiding my rear hub. After completing the relevant steps, I have found that my drive side of the hub has a little more thread exposed on the axel as opposed to the rotor side. The "play" that I was originally experiencing seems to have disappeared and the wheel turns freely.

My concern; Will I cause any damage by having a littl more thread on one side as opposed to the other?? any help would be great Smile
  • + 1
 People always say that it's the axle compressing or flexing when you tighten the QR, but is this really the case? The cones tighten slightly on a bolted / solid axle too, when you bolt them up tight. I have always assumed that it's the cone assembly moving slightly inward on the axle when the the QR pushes the dropouts inwards. The thread tolerance is such that the cones and locknut can rock slightly when not locked against each other. I just have a hard time believing that a 10mm solid cromo axle compresses or flexes when bolts are tightened. If it was just hollow axles, it'd be slightly more believable.
  • + 2
 That's why they said it was an entirely different story when you're using a bolt-on axle as opposed to a hollow quick release axle.
  • + 1
 Best adjustment for this type of hub is to leave a tiny bit of play in it so that when you tighten the QR, the tension eliminates the play and leaves the hub in perfect adjustment with no play. The cheaper the hub the more pronounced the QR tension effect seems to be. Bolt on hubs don't have the same effect because the axle nut tightens against that side's opposed locknut/cone and doesn't just smush the whole thing together. Shimano Dura-Ace hubs have a fancy way of indexing this adjustment and eliminates the QR adding tension to the hub altogether. Hopefully we will see that trickle down to the lower end hubs soon!
  • + 1
 Thank you for posting a tech tip that's widely useful and now "how to adjust the blah blah proprietary setting on your $750 2012 blah blah expensive stuff that no one owns."

/backhanded compliments >

But really. Much obliged.
  • + 1
 i tend to find that if you done this properly hold the wheel by the axel and let go of the wheel, the wheel should rock for a bit then stop with the heaviest part at the bottom. For me, for example, my wheel has a small reflector on the spokes and it stops with the reflector at the bottom. I also use this to judge when its due for the next service as it wont stop with the reflector at the bottom, but rather just stop
  • + 1
 to put it bluntly, i will never buy another cup n cone bearing based hub again. way too much hassle and crap gets in the bearings easily. cups and cones and qr need to die asap.
  • + 1
 i have cup and cone and a qr in all my mountain bikes and they work fine for me, except in the front of my dh i have a 20mm thru axle. but i like qrs cause they are really simple and work really well. and cup and cone are amazing if you dont mind putting a bit of work into them
  • + 1
 that's ok if you have the nerves and time to overhaul them regularly, i prefer not to bother with them (i'd rather knock out the old bearings, press in the new ones and be done with it for the season) since cones and stuff tend to seize after a month or two of heavy mud, not to mention that water and crap gets easily in there and damages the cones. because of all that i was going ape shit regularly and gave up on them.

on the other hand, i believe they are perfectly suited for roadies and that's where they belong along with qr.
  • + 2
 i think the pics are better, at least if you wanted to you can print the pictures out! good guide that as i will be doing mine this week!
  • + 2
 Bic pen lid is great at getting the ball bearings just where you need them.
  • + 3
 wow great timing i took my rear hub apart yesterday trying to repack it and failed this is goin to help alot thanks!
  • + 1
 on a downhill bike, those phil wood bearings will have to be replaced a couple of times a season adding up to around 150-200 right?
  • + 3
 Awesome Tech Tuesday. Good work guys!
  • + 3
 This is great! You should make one with thru-axle hubs.
  • + 1
 Soak bearing balls in gas or any other degreaser to remove rust or old grease
  • + 2
 wd40 then a good rinse with water is what i do.
  • + 1
 All rotation actionable process had bearings as an indispensable part to work.
  • + 1
 No shit, just did this last night after my hub was making a terrible noise, haha but still a great tech tuesday!!
  • + 2
 Great, easy to follow write up. Really appreciate this stuff guys!
  • + 1
 edit: took this comment away because i posted it at the wrong place
  • + 1
 then why doesn't everybody have sealed bearings???
  • + 1
 Do a service of the manitu swinger 4way rear shock pleasE
  • + 1
 what about the freehub body rebuild?
  • + 1
 I think that would be quite difficult as there are so many different types of freehub mechanisms and ways to remove them. Shimano ne Mavic ne King ne I9 ne DT ne WTB (but does = American Classic) etc etc.

Saying that, perhaps showing Shimano and Mavic and Hope would do most readers.
  • + 1
 You CAN rebuild Shimano freehub bodies - but with the retail price of the XT unit hovering around 50usd, it's one part that makes sense to replace, especially considering it comes with a brand new right-side bearing race. One healthy twist of a 10 mm allen and you're done!
  • + 1
 ^ Oh, I didn't meant it couldn't be done, I was just saying that one video won't satisfy all hub owners.
  • + 4
 Here's a cheeky trick: if you have a Shimano hub that needs parts, you can usually get a new non-disc hub for 20 bucks or so, and everything (axle, cones, fh body, even balls) is compatible between the two so you can poach what you need and throw the rest away.
  • + 1
 i was referring to the shimano saint rear hubs. Smile
  • + 1
 why the skinnies?
  • + 1
 Nice one! Hub and cone adjustment is one the most nerve-wrecking tasks while servicing my wheels, I'll use this guide as a cheklist and a reminder.
  • + 3
 It gets way easier if someone knowledgeable shows you the right tension, so you learn what kind of resistance/play to hold on to when doing it yourself. This article is great but knowing the right feel is essential
  • + 1
 Cup and cone will need slight adjustment as the grease displaces any way.
  • + 1
 How do i remove old hardened on grease, is there some kind of degreaser I should use? I don't want to scrape it out, it only happened on one side of the hub, the other side was fine. (bike is pretty old).
  • + 1
 marquis - yup, after rebuild I left mine with next to no play before tightening QR, after 3 maybe 4 rides the wheel already developed play, then I readjusted it with "normal" play, after a month or so a slight play could be felt so I readjusted again. Lately I felt the drag on the wheel, readjustment again - outer nut got a bit loose and the outer race tightened itself somehow. It just needs checking, but I think I'm jsut not good enough yet. It's 2 years since I "play" with shimano wheel. But set of two spanners and a vice makes things not that hard.

bikedownhail: I had same issue on deore hub on my old commuter, I used pretty normal degreaser and a tooth brush. I used the hard plastic side for the most stubborn part. Degreasing is good to do on anything you are "regreasing".
  • + 1
 well explained!
  • + 1
  • + 1
 dupe. Please delete
  • + 1
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