Higenamine & Oxilofrine: What Are the Banned Substances that Jared Graves & Richie Rude Tested Positive For?

Nov 26, 2018
by James Smurthwaite  


As reported earlier today, Richie Rude and Jared Graves failed an anti-doping test at round 3 of the Enduro World Series in Orlagues, with the drugs Higenamine and Oxilofrine in their systems.

We dug deeper into the drugs.





What have they tested positive for?

Jared and Richie have tested positive for two performance enhancing drugs, Higenamine and Oxilofrine. Both are explicitly banned by the World Anti Doping Authority (WADA) but they are listed as Specified Substances.

What is Higenamine?

Higenamine is a drug used to treat asthma and is part of the Beta2 Agonist class of drugs. All Beta2 Agonists are banned by WADA.

The most notorious of the Beta2 Agonists is Sulbutamol that Chris Froome returned an Adverse Analytical Finding for on Stage 18 of the 2017 Vuelta Espana. Chris Froome was allowed a certain dosage of Sulbutamol to combat his asthma and he was later cleared of any wrongdoing when the test was adjusted to take account of dehydration.

Unlike Sulbutamol, which is allowed in certain doses as a Therapeutic Use Exemption for asthma sufferers, Higenamine is totally banned in and out of competition.

Higenamine is a naturally occuring substance that is found in plants such as the Lotus and Chinese Wolfsbane and has a history of being used in traditional medicine. Higenamine is also a legal food supplement in Canada, the USA and the EU.

What does Higenamine do?

Beta2 Agonists relax the muscles that control the airways, allowing an athlete’s lungs to take in more oxygen and boost performance. Higenamine is also used as a fat burner in dietary supplements.

Who else has tested positive for Higenamine?

Most famously, Liverpool FC soccer player Mamadou Sakho was tested positive for Higenamine in April 2016 and was punished with a 30-day ban from European competition. This ban was overturned when Sakho argued that Higenamine was not explicitly listed as a Beta2 Agonist in WADA’s guidelines. It was officially added in October 2016.

Higenamine’s purported fat burning properties mean it can be found in some training supplements. The drug is known by many names and the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority published an official warning in August 2017 that 13 Australian athletes across nine sports had tested positive for Higenamine.

The supplement market is largely unregulated and it is ultimately an athlete’s responsibility to monitor what they are using and its legality. The WADA’s strict liability rule means that unintentional or negligent consumption does not absolve an athlete of responsibility.

What is Oxilofrine?

The other drug Jared and Richie tested positive for, Oxilofrine, is a stimulant and amphetamine. It is commonly used to treat low blood pressure in people who do not respond to conventional treatment.

What does Oxilofrine do?

Stimulants such as Oxilofrine increase focus, alertness and can reduce reaction times.

Oxilofrine also causes the body to produce more adrenaline, which has added performance benefits including boosting endurance, increasing the oxygenation of the blood and burning fat.

Who else has tested positive for Oxilofrine?

In one of the most famous doping cases in history, 100 metre sprinters Asafa Powell and Tyson Gay tested positive for Oxilofrine in 2013. Both athletes maintained they did not take it knowingly and their bans were overturned a year later.
Graves was in good spirits despite a tough day on the trails that didn t go his way.
Jared Graves at EWS Rotorua in 2017.

A cyclist, Flavia Oliviera, was also popped for Oxilofrine in 2009. She unknowingly took it in a supplement known as HyperDrive 3.0+. Her two year sentence was reduced to 18 months after she proved it was not a labelled ingredient on the supplement.

What is a specified substance?

Higenamine and Oxilofrine are both specified substances. Specified Substances are a subcategory of prohibited substances that are not necessarily less potent but they do leave open the possibility of a reduced sentence through a plausible explanation.

WADA says that Specified Substances were introduced: “to recognize that it is possible for a substance to enter an athlete’s body inadvertently, and therefore allow a tribunal more flexibility when making a sanctioning decision.

“Specified” substances are not necessarily less effective doping agents than “Non-Specified” substances, nor do they relieve athletes of the strict liability rule that makes them responsible for all substances that enter their body.”

This means WADA acknowledges Higenamine and Oxilofrine can be taken accidentally and they may take this into account when it comes to sanctioning an athlete after a positive test.

Unlike other performance enhancing drugs, Specified Substances also do not warrant the instant “mandatory, provisional suspension” that is usually imposed when an athlete first tests positive for a banned substance. This explains why the riders were allowed to compete at Petzen, La Thuille and Whistler, despite a positive test.

What kind of sanctions are expected?

Each case is individual to that athlete and their circumstances but we can look at other recent cases to see what sort of sanctions to expect.

If previous sanctions are any indication, Jared and Richie may see some results to be stripped and a ban to be imposed. Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA) has published three cases of Higenamine violations combined with other substances on its sanctions website and they all carried bans of at least 18 months. The website has no mention of Oxilofrine punishments.
Richie Rude back on top where he belongs
Richie Rude took the top spot on the podium at EWS Olargues in May 2018.

The US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) has sanctions for Higenamine ranging from nine months to four years and two cases of Oxilofrine abuse, one with a six-month sanction and one with 18 months.

Until now, the EWS has not had to impose sanctions due to banned substances.


248 Comments

  • 421 4
 I posted this in re Mike Levy's article "Well written piece by Mike Levy. More than just a piece; it's journalism with primary research then soliciting quotes from parties implicated. Reporting facts then extending from those facts."

I would say the same of this piece. It draws from primary sources. It reports. It describes past sanctioning practices. I came away educated. I say this because often one doesn't hear the good but only hears the bad; bravo to PB, MikeL and James S for journalism.
  • 49 1
 Yup I agree completely - I come away from reading all these articles confident in my knowledge of the situation. Great work Mike, James and Brian.
  • 31 1
 Agreed, very well written. Just a quick update on Beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists - the primary effect is actually relaxation of smooth muscle tissue in the bronchial passages causing bronchial dilation (expansion of the oxygenating vessels in the lungs) leading to improved respiratory function. This obviously benefits those with Asthma or COPD, who suffer from airway hyperresponsiveness, obstruction, mucus hyper-production and airway wall remodeling, leading to your standard "difficulty breathing" suffered by those with both conditions. The way it is written above isn't wrong, it just kind of suggests that it actually impacts the muscles that control inspiration (breathing in) and expiration (breathing out) such as the diaphragm, the external intercostals, the abs, and the obliques, which isn't really the case. Kinda irrelevant to the whole article, but the more ya know I guess.
  • 14 1
 @snowwcold55: Beta agonists are very very efficacious are improving aerobic performance as well as strength and power. The most relevant study to cycling shows an average of about 30% increase in time to exhaustion in recreationally trained humans. Any suggestion that orally administered beta agonists do not have a substantial effect on performance is just not correct.

www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.2.430
  • 6 0
 @xphysnerd: the question isn't whether beta agonists boost performance, the question, if everyone can claim some level of elevation induced asthma, can everyone use beta agonists?

For example, I live at elevation, so I don't suffer from the same breathing issues as far more fit people from sea level. When they take albuterol, they exceed my performance by a fair margin, but are likely to die without it.
  • 14 0
 Totally agree. It is not only journalism, but it is also GOOD journalism. Good job PB! Hope to best for Jared and Rude, but mostly for mountain biking racing.
  • 2 1
 @PHeller: The best part about beta agonists is they are very unlikely to boost performance when inhaled. So, everyone could use inhalers like people who actually need it and there would likely be no benefit.
  • 4 0
 @xphysnerd: Nope, agree, definitely has a positive effect on the performance parameters of the athlete. I was just commenting on the way the mechanism of action was explained in the above piece wasn't spot-on accurate scientifically, hence my comment. Cheers buddy!
  • 13 1
 @snowwcold55: and @xphysnerd I'd also like to state my personal gratitude for a non-flamewar useful educational piece of back-and-forth which also served to educate myself.
  • 3 0
 @PHeller: the general standard for a TUE (exemption to use a specified substance) is does it allow the athlete to perform at, but not above the level they would be at personally, in the absence of the treated condition. That’s why some drugs are banned outright (ie: it’s pretty hard to get a therapeutic dose of methamphetamine as opposed to a performance enhancing one).

There’s been some research showing cyclists with TUEs for Salbutamol massively over represent the wider population which does raise questions of if the system works well.

It’s not surprising the French carried out the test, France has led anti doping in cycling since the late 90’s, and caught out a few pros along the way when they’ve crossed the border.
  • 1 0
 @xphysnerd: Not to get too nerdy, but I wonder if you could make a case that inhaled Beta2 agonists can still induce therapeutic and performance enhancing effect simply by the increased capacity/ decreased resistance of the bronchi and the bronchioles, even if only for a short period of time. Throw some sort of anti-inflammatory agent in the mix and you would have significantly increased lung performance capacity, no?
  • 4 26
flag RollinFoSho (Nov 26, 2018 at 13:59) (Below Threshold)
 The obvious question now is wether or not Jared’s brain tumour was related to taking performance enhancing substances...?
  • 4 6
 @RollinFoSho: I can surely tell you that's is most likely not. over 60% of cancers are spontaneous as in what you put into you body doesn't cause it
  • 2 0
 @snowwcold55: It makes logical sense, but the applied studies suggest that it needs to be orally administered to have a real effect on performance.

link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-200737020-00001
  • 11 2
 So, I switched my brand of granola recently, is there a risk that I’m now consuming a specified substance?

Answer: No, because it’s expensive to produce specified substances, so no one accidentally puts them in granola. If, on the other hand you are managing your “pre-race diet” to optimise your performance to every extent possible within the rules...then you might be ingesting specified substances...in my view at this level of “optimisation” you definitely should be. checking everything and ignorance is a weak defence.
  • 2 1
 Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs. It is used to treat asthma including asthma attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Wikipedia
  • 6 1
 Salbutamol, I’ve used it for 25+ years, it’s good shit!!
  • 3 1
 Two puffs and I can ride for hours! I’ve got a couple extra refills, anyone interested?
  • 4 0
 @rglasser: I love my salbutamol! A couple puffs at the bottom of a bike climb or a big up while ski touring and away I go. One of the minor benefits of my asthma. The performance increase is very noticeable for me as an over 40 sort of athlete.
  • 2 0
 @heinous: "There’s been some research showing cyclists with TUEs for Salbutamol massively over represent the wider population which does raise questions of if the system works well."

I wonder if part of it is they get tested though, and lots of people are suboptimal but don't know
  • 1 0
 @mtb-sf: yeah, more tests, and operating under much greater stress, with the added complications of compromised immune systems from such low mass, but in speaking to one of the wada doctors a couple years ago even he was curious if they were all legit. There’s a standardised protocol for testing but you can still choose your doctor to carry it out, so there a bit of shopping around for a sympathetic one.
  • 2 0
 @paulhaysom: Oi. I don't mind most people forgetting me, but we have history, sugartits. Although you didn't even bother to tell me you had left PB, so I guess the love is truly gone. xx
  • 1 0
 @mattwragg: as well as the sanctions referred to in the article, what about the relatively new French anti doping laws? Without a legit excuse are they not also facing prison?
  • 5 1
 @leelau 100% agree.

The quality of unbiased journalism shown by PinkBike over this is refreshing to read, no speculation and rumour-spreading crap. Just well-researched facts and figures. As this is the first big doping issue to hit the MTB world for a long time it's great to see it being dealt with professionally.
  • 2 1
 This is good but I would love to see real mountain bike journalism, more along the lines of how newspapers operate, where they tell us things we don’t know and break real stories. Post the inside information. Break the news of team changes before the official press releases. Post pictures of prototype bikes and parts before the companies make the general announcements etc. I understand why sites like Pinkbike don’t do that, but it would be cool the have.
  • 2 1
 I couldn't have said it better myself, this is exemplary of the best content of pinkbike, even on a subject I don't care about.
  • 2 0
 Should interview the team managers and ask why they don't test their athletes before they are tested by officials. It would sure save them a lot of embarrassment and shame. Are the teams doing their part or are they part of the problem?
  • 1 0
 @xphysnerd: not really...just because it's a beta agonist doesn't mean it will have a substantial effect on performance. You're simply lumping all beta agonists into a categoyy, just like lumping all steroids into a single category. The topical steroid for eczema is not going to give any performance increase to an athlete, but the blood will in fact test positive for steroid use. It's quite a bit more complicated biologically. Some people are more responsive to it than others....
  • 1 0
 @rupintart: I agree with you. I was simply showing that beta agonists can be extremely beneficial for performance, since this article doesn't identify how beneficial beta agonist can POTENTIALLY be.
  • 1 0
 @Riggbeck: No idea. We have to wait to know more - every side involves deserves due process so judgements aren't rushed.
  • 1 0
 @snowwcold55: Interesting thought. I would be concerned about using NSAIDs to boost pulmonary function as they are associated with exacerbations of lung disease due to the mechanism by which they work. Simply (or not so simply) put, NSAIDs block a pathway responsible for producing pro-inflammatory prostaglandins but as a result produce increased amounts of leukotrienes, which play a major role in pulmonary inflammation. Perhaps a leukotriene inhibitor would fit your hypothesis?
  • 1 0
 @bryanmckinlay: Well that's worrisome. I take NSAIDS prior to workout because I have bad issues with headaches in warmer climates, regardless of how much electrolytes or fluids I'm getting. Sounds like it could be doing my lungs a disservice.
  • 1 0
 @PHeller: Wouldn’t worry about it as I’m not aware of it causing any problems in non asthmatics. My statement was just for conversation sake. I’ll have a look for some studies on the topic and let you know if I find anything!
  • 161 5
 I want a TOO FUEL racing league ... with mandatory doping thats un regulated completely ... team Doctors haging in the trees with blow dart guns loaded with like meth and pain killers and racers crossing the finish line with their backs covered in darts teeth clenched ripping frames i half with their bare hands !! TELL ME THAT WOULDNT BE EXCITING TO SPECTATE ... Pro doping league !!
  • 280 7
 I think you just described the Tour de France.
  • 17 6
 @Rigidjunkie: Underrated comment
  • 10 21
flag jeffers696 (Nov 26, 2018 at 12:23) (Below Threshold)
 Let them take what they want. Who cares.
  • 3 1
 can't dope those richie rude huckzzzz
  • 2 1
 Seems like you just need to get in touch with this guy:

performxracing.com
  • 2 0
 literally spit my espresso over the table! Thank you so much! "(...)doctors hanging in the trees with blow dart guns".
Thank you!
  • 1 0
 Agreed. I must say these two meds sound great for amateurs too. I definitely feel like I need my lungs opened up as I get older :-)
  • 1 0
 Even the comments section is fueled by doping haha! Epic comment Smile
  • 88 4
 After long weekend rides in the mountains, bathing in streams, and wiping my ass with local fauna, I'd say my higenamine is not the best. That's what we're talking about here, right?
  • 13 0
 LOL, I've only ever wiped my arse with the local flora and fungi (mushrooms work really well and are soft on my delicate flesh).
  • 6 3
 Poison oak. MTFU and wipe with poison oak.
  • 5 1
 Ha. I know a guy that wiped his arse with stinging nettles. That race did not go well for him.
  • 9 1
 Yes, real men wipe their ass exclusively with live mountain lions and grizzlies.
  • 2 1
 @iamamodel: I feel like this is how you accidentally trip while out on a ride.

Or not so accidentally I suppose
  • 3 0
 So....nice to put a name on a face: youtu.be/fHR6a3SO35s
  • 57 6
 That's why i just smoke weed .
  • 27 1
 Pretty sure that's a banned substance too. Helps you relax, eat, and rest well.
  • 7 0
 @AdustytrunkMonkey: you can get a therapeutic use exemption for cannabis
  • 25 1
 @AdustytrunkMonkey: yeah still would be hilarious if nino tested positive for marijuana so all the weight weenie Xc freaks would start smoking
  • 8 1
 @mkotowski1 Haha. Back in 2006 Slovenian DH national champion tested positive for thc. Anyways I'd like to meet a person capable of wining DH race while being high Big Grin
  • 6 1
 @winko: actually, speaking of weed, I always thought it amusing, not so much that it's banned, but somehow thought of as a performance enhancer. Like when Ross Rebagliati won gold in mens snowboard slalom in the 98 games. He probably should have got a second gold just for winning gold while baked. If I was racing against him I'd be pissed he beat me. When I found out he was high I'd retire from comps.

Of course this would all be moot in skiing slalom as you'd finish last. But still.
  • 23 0
 @winko: *silently looks at ganj decorated shrine to Rat-boy*

... yeah, I haven't a clue mate..
  • 54 9
 Wouldn't it be a good idea if the EWS and UCI or even you Pinkbike go through all the most common supplement brands taken by mountain bikers and create a list of what is safe to take and what is uncertain? And then again, with some education people would be more responsible, it would even push the sketchy brands to get their shit together. And there won't be any excuse anymore.
  • 28 0
 Yeah, but the unregulated (US) supplement market has been shown repeatedly to include things in different amounts than what is on the bottle and to include things that are not even listed on the bottle. Unless they get RC to rig up some homebrewed gas chromatograph, that list would be useless & possibly even harmful.
  • 8 0
 @yoannbarelli
But how does one know if it's safe to take if it's not labelled anyways?
"She unknowingly took it in a supplement known as HyperDrive 3.0+. Her two year sentence was reduced to 18 months after she proved it was not a labelled ingredient on the supplement."

I can't believe that they put amphetamine in their supplement and don't indicate it

@FatTonyNJ are supplement regulated by FDA ? they are normally pretty strict
  • 2 1
 You need to remove yourself from this conversation as it will not convince the negatives trolls
  • 1 0
 It’s a minefield, for sure. There are a few higher end brands that do more disclosure and have various certifications. It reduces the risk a lot, and when you look at how many elite triathletes etc have these issues it does obviously help to reduce risk.

I suspect too that an athlete showing they had used specifically accredited supplements would be taken in to account by any tribunal should they get unlucky.

It’s not perfect, but there are lots of ways of reducing risk.
  • 2 0
 @WelshClemo:
Do you mean at @yoannbarelli ?
If so, I actually welcome the input on this issue from other pro's. I have seen quite a few giving their take today across these failed test articles comments and each of their comments has educated me a bit more.
Book tup
  • 1 0
 @heinous: adding to your comment which I agree with, many supplement companies pay for third party independent testing of their product to provide banned substance free guarantees. Usually indicated on the front of the label. Research the supplement manufacturer and the certifying body to ensure quality. Speaking as someone who works in the supplement industry, it’s usually better to look for products from large, established brands rather than smaller sports products only companies. Those larger companies have more in-house testing, more skin in the game and less to gain by “spiking” products.
  • 9 0
 There is a whole organization dedicated to certifying clean supplements, called NSF www.nsfsport.com. None of the organizations you mentioned are willing to risk being held accountable for a positive test. Being 100% certain that 100% of what comes out of a certain factory is 100% percent clean is actually pretty time and money consuming, which is also why there are not a lot of brands on NSF's list.
  • 2 0
 @AntoineCaron: yeah, I recall that. When AFLD release the analysis I imagine it will show the concentration, at which point the tainted supplement vs chugging pills will be much more straight forward.
  • 2 0
 @zede: The FDA regulates dietary supplements as a food, and not as a medication, which means that dietary supplement companies don't have to go through any sort of process to have their products approved prior to going to market, like what is necessary for a medication. So a supplement company can develop a product, create an ingredients label, and make claims about the health or performance benefit of the product without any sort of prior regulation or approval process. Since the FDA doesn't have the capacity to verify the ingredients or claims of all these products, the only regulation that occurs would be if consumers report negative effects or incidents to the FDA, at which point the FDA will take action. That's what I gather from my limited research.

www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm153239.htm
www.businessinsider.com/supplements-vitamins-bad-or-good-health-2017-8
  • 4 0
 With all due respect Yoann and PB, I agree with EWS and UCI doing that, but as a competitive athlete if you get flagged, I don't think you can say to the Tribunal "But I followed the Pinkbike list!" and get off.

In the end, even if WADA / USADA, WhereADA keeps a list, you'll still be responsible for whatever tests positive in your blood unless you prove otherwise.

I do wonder if supplement manufacturers knowingly slip some stuff in and don't disclose it. If their product gets results, they'll sell more, right? Even if they don't know, their suppliers may be a bit shady, and the QC is off. Soon it will have to be all natural foods and drinks, nothing else. And if you get popped, you'll know the testing has some QC issues.

Good luck and I hope you never have to go through this ordeal.
  • 3 1
 the FDA is bought and paid for by big ag and pharma. That’s why you have things like roundup being called safe to be sprayed on your oats right before harvest. I only comment so that others don’t start thinking we need the fda regulating supplements anymore than they already do. It’d just be a false sense of security and probably worse.

To me it sounds like JG and RR we’re careless with their supplements. I hope we learn of more info to prove this or some other explanation other than them being dopers.
  • 2 0
 @westeast: Does the Supplement Industry have an adverse event hotline, or mechanisms to report consumer safety issues, or run analyses and publish reports to determine which supplements have had adverse events, contaminants/spiking, etc.? I am curious, I really don't know this industry at all.
  • 1 0
 @westeast: I did look at the NSF site just now, but complaint reporting seems to be for just NSF certified products. All pharmaceutical agents are under the FDA's purview, while not all supplements will be NSF certified...
  • 3 0
 I think it's better if everyone watches what they eat anyway, no? Are supplements really worth the extra risk? If they are improving your natural recovery then they are doing so artificially. The Tour de France athletes are all riding on the limit of what is legal and what is not. Why not just make a blanket ban on ALL artificial substances that aid recovery? It would make it a lot simpler and ultimately level the playing field. w
  • 1 0
 this has existed for a while.
www.informed-choice.org
  • 1 0
 given how popular suplements are, some spanish reporters did that, buying suplements and analizing them in independent labs.
Results were mixed, but the protein isolate of the most popular brand in Spain claiming to be 90something% protein turned out to be like 70% carbs, so here's that.
  • 1 0
 @nochmalbitte: mmm, could one go testing products in independent laboratories hoping to find something hamrful/not listed in the ingredients, then sue the crap out them?
  • 4 0
 There isn‘t any excuse now. A professional athlete should know what he or she is taking. And they usually do.

That’s the funny thing here, both athletes actually have a supplement sponsor, who has already declared that the substances in question do not stem from their stuff.
  • 2 0
 @Staktup: "I do wonder if supplement manufacturers knowingly slip some stuff in and don't disclose it. If their product gets results, they'll sell more, right?"

Of course they do. Especially if they are a publicly traded company, whose main obligation is to the stock holder. No consideration of right vs wrong, good vs bad. Just profit. It doesn't even matter if people die, so long as the numbers work out.
  • 1 1
 Nothing is 100% clean as some legal mixes can give positive results by default
  • 33 2
 These items are gonna be in my Christmas wish!
  • 8 16
flag WAKIdesigns (Nov 26, 2018 at 11:33) (Below Threshold)
 I’d love some too. My boss would be happy as well.
  • 12 0
 @drivereight with a chemical make up that goes HO HO OH I think you might be disappointed.
  • 32 0
 @WAKIdesigns: I would support your decision if they were proven to reduce keyboard performance
  • 8 0
 @WAKIdesigns: now we finally what drives you to type so much
  • 5 28
flag RollinFoSho (Nov 26, 2018 at 13:56) (Below Threshold)
 Be careful about what you choose to take. I wonder if it had something to do with Jared’s brain tumour?
  • 14 5
 @RollinFoSho: congratulations you found the bottom
  • 1 0
 Should interview the team managers and ask why they don't test their athletes before they are tested by officials. It would sure save them a lot of embarrassment and shame. Are the teams doing their part or are they part of the problem?
  • 29 4
 "Must have been in a supplement" Yah Right! That defense goes back 30 years in Track and Field. No way an amphetamine like Oxilofrine would be explained by their supplements. Go see @yoannbarelli's Facebook post today. Track and Field KNOWS OXILOFRINE works, that is why, in 2013, three of the fastest 100m sprinters ever - Tyson Gay, Asafa Powell, and Veronica Cambell-Brown tested positive for it. This was a huge, huge, scandal for Track and Field. Don't believe the carefully crafted responses from RR and JG today as their lawyers and sponsors have had since July to carefully craft the media message. There is a ton of media out there talking about how Oxilofrine has been found in supplements, so this is the easiest media 'one-liner' to try to "deflect, deny, externalize" any responsibility. Oxilofrine is similar to the infamous pseudoephedrine in effect which was Track and Field's original stimulant of choice. For an idea of what someone looks like on pseudoephedrine check out how pumped up Carl Lewis is at the 3:00 mark and how fired up and spacey he is at the 5:00 mark after the interview. Mini-adrenaline boost that is why someone would take pseudoephedrine or oxilofrine. This was from the 1988 US Olympic Trials where it was later revealed that Lewis tested positive for pseudoephedrine but the test was buried. Lewis should not have been at the infamous 1988 Olympic final. Richie and Jared's France results should be voided. Best of luck to Jared currently, but it looks like a poor decision by both though unfortunately. www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecMVcj-wEQQ
  • 23 2
 feel like we in the MTB community look at this from the "post lance armstrong" side. We want to give the benefit of the doubt for sure, but after hearing lance lie about it for forever and then be busted always tends to make people a bit jaded when it comes to other cases.
I personally still give them the benefit of the doubt, in interviews and over time they have been nothing but humble and stand-up men.
  • 37 3
 I think part of the problem is how supplements and athletic nutrition are viewed these days. I think many athletes avoid stuff that might give them a "boost", but there are certain circles who believe some supplements merely "unlock" natural potential.

Take something as basic as protein and the assorted types of powders available. If protein powders are design to allow you to build muscle mass and strength outside of what any normal person would be able to get in a diet, are they a "booster" or performance enhancing drug?

Then you say, well, its not natural, so it should be banned. What about natural sources of performance enhancement? Nandina, Wolfsbane and Lotus seeds are all natural and an athlete could benefit from the Higenamine in them. Likewise, could someone drink Bitter Orange smoothies all days to get the mild benefits of naturally occurring Oxilofrine? If we say "no" to eating concentrated substances of naturally occurring performance enhancers in certain foods, does that mean protein hydrolysates should be banned as well? Or maltodextrin?

If you could take a pill that would be completely safe, but "unlock" your maximum physical performance (with training) to allow you to shed weight, run further, lift more, and absolutely shred on a bike...why wouldn't you take it? It's just allowing you to be your best, not adding anything, so is that a performance enhancer, or a performance unlocker? In the future of health and sports sciences, this will be an active and continuous debate.
  • 10 1
 @PHeller: The things that are banned are banned for good reason. Beta agonists do not simply give you a tiny boost to let you realize your hard earned training adaptations. Beta agonists increased time to exhaustion in recreationally trained humans by an average of 30% in the study below.


www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.2.430
  • 7 0
 I Don't Like The Drugs (But The Drugs Like Me)
  • 4 0
 @PHeller: I agree it's hard to say where to draw the line. Personally, I think the touchstone should be whether a substance is harmful to the athlete.

It's not right that any athlete should be ever put in a position of having to take harmful substances in order to compete. But when it comes to substances that aren't harmful, I don't see a compelling case for banning them, and any distinction between "banned" vs. "allowed" just seems arbitrary.
  • 14 0
 @endlessblockades: "I used to do drugs. I still do... but I used to too" - Mitch Hedberg
  • 4 0
 Not all drugs are good, all right? Some of them … are great. Just gotta know your way around them. - Bill Hicks
  • 2 0
 @mpcremata: but how can you determine the harmfulness of something?
Often they are substances present naturally on the body. Or just substances only harmful in big doses.
That leaves room to allow everything, just in certain amounts
  • 1 0
 @ismasan: Yea, true. Although, if it's something naturally present in the body, then that can't be a banned substance anyway, unless it's based on amounts. And even if it's something that's only harmful in larger doses, maybe that's still sufficient justification for banning it--because if you allow it, people are going to take it in those large doses, and then everyone will have to in order to compete.

Hey, I certainly don't pretend to be an expert or have all the answers, it just seems to me that harmfulness should be the main guidepost when it comes to determining whether something is banned or not.
  • 22 0
 Can we have a pinkbike poll with all available drugs?
  • 14 0
 That we personally sell or that are available online?
  • 21 0
 @Mntneer: lol a new section under the buy/ sell
  • 24 5
 Pinkbike, The racers, and the sponsors, and sanctioning bodies all think we are naive.
  • 16 3
 They're in full damage control mode
  • 10 1
 @Mntneer: EXACTLY! In other sports, especially Tour de France, you find out the whole industry knew everything all along. But there’s a huge disincentive to blow the whistle if you’re all making money off it. As ever, just refer to Bill Burr. They’re not going to turn in their yachts youtu.be/O9YL04v-J5U
  • 51 35
 So Oxilofrine is an amphetamine. That confirms that whether they knew they were taking it or not, Oxilofrine definitely increases performance, it is well documented how amphetamines increase endurance, focus and depending on the dose, you can pretty much ignore physical pain in an attempt to achieve a certain task. That shit is serious.

Next we have Higenamine which helps reduce inflammation of the airways similar to other drugs used to treat asthma, once again definitely proven and banned performance enhancing drug.

If these guys really didn’t know what they were taking or couldn’t tell something was up with their bodies after taking it “accidentally,” then they are dumbasses. More likely they knew this shit was gonna get them hopped up but it was obscure enough they thought they could get away with it.
  • 17 3
 as well as not being tested for a few years. Just opens the door for them to push the edge even more.
  • 13 5
 @mkotowski1 It has been said that the levels found by the test were very low, so they may not have realized anything was outside the norm, especially on an adrenaline and stress filled race weekend.
  • 24 8
 @mkotowski1 Wow, you would make a horrible judge and/or scientist.
  • 12 1
 @mkotowski, your assumption that they would obviously feel the efffects, even if unaware they were ingesting it, is false. In double blind studies like the one linked below, most participants did not note any difference in feeling or sensation, regardless of whether they were fed the placebo or the active drug.
  • 1 7
flag mkotowski1 (Nov 26, 2018 at 11:19) (Below Threshold)
 @Inertiaman: yeah but not for amphetamines
  • 3 1
 @ka-brap: wasn’t trying to be either and yes I agree lol
  • 3 4
 @ka-brap: so you think rude and graves are innocent?
  • 7 2
 @mkotowski1: I'd wait until more evidence comes to light before I made the claim that anything is "confirmed", as you put it. Right now we don't know if they accidentally ingested this stuff, took it intentionally, or are the victims of something malicious.
  • 8 5
 @ka-brap: I didn’t say it was confirmed just that as pro athletes I find it unlikely they didn’t know what they were put Omg in there bodies.

It’s not me or you walking into gnc and buying supplements. It’s two former EWS champions! They got all the resources in the world to know what they can and can’t put in their bodies.
  • 8 4
 Exactly, these things read like enduro superfoods! No pro is accidently ingesting these things, they are not accidently ingesting anything.
  • 5 0
 @catfish9797: you have to look at the half life of a drug and how fast the body metabolized it to determine how much was present at the time of use. Ll
  • 2 0
 @clink83: Correct. That's what this process will be about, determining source and time of ingestion so they can determine peak levels and if it provided an advantage, whether the ingestion was unintentional or not. Once they figure that out the judgement will be levied, and possible punishment will be meted out. I was simply offering a counter that at very small levels, if they were unaware they ingested the two substances in a tainted supplement, that Graves and Rude may not even have noticed the effects, especially if they were drinking energy drinks heavy on caffeine, as well as adrenalized from the competition and racing atmosphere. This is why I won't use any supplements at all, or consume energy drinks outside of my morning espresso for that matter, because it's so hard to really know what manufacturers are putting in there to make the product effective, despite what the labels say.
  • 1 1
 @H3RESQ: yeah, have you ever been tested in ews before..... no
  • 4 2
 @catfish9797: You can't rely too much on the levels of the substances found because as proven in cycling, Olympics and MMA, the masking agents are even more complex than the performance enhancers themselves. That's why you can be banned if you have traces of known masking agents in your system.

For all we know, Graves and Rude were unlucky coz their masking agents didn't work as expected while the other dopers got theirs right.
  • 1 0
 @almacigatrailrider: could be true. That’s why the adjudicators have such a shite job, because they have to wade through all of this and determine what they think to be he most likely scenario. It’s a bummer on all parts, and def Graves’ and Rude’s. Especially if it really was tainted supplement, because now their reputations are stained no matter what, and only they will truly ever know if they were clean and it was just a mistake or not.
  • 15 1
 While I like both of these riders the bottom line is that your normal weekend warrior may stumble across supplements not knowing or perhaps caring that they contain banned items but these guys are international athletes with a team behind them providing nutrition support and surely know what they are taking/risking.

Makes me concerned they may be ‘only the tip of the iceberg ‘ in a sport we just want to be clean.
  • 1 0
 Absolutely. In the end they can decide to lay off the supplements completely if there is ANY doubt at all, even if they’re sponsored by a supplement company. They don’t have to take the stuff.
  • 14 2
 Cynical comment- The UCI didn't adequately inform/tip off teams of new EWS/UCI testing protocols, and these riders got caught.

Reality- Now we can begin hearing the stories of denial, assignment of blame, misdirection and obfuscation-- historically the communication strategy of every pro athlete who gets caught with a banned substance in their system in the modern age.

What will the penalty be for a couple of first-time-caught offenders?

Sadly, we can consider mountain biking firmly established in the ranks of professional sport, where cheaters are either winning, or supplying fans with the drama that supplants the efforts of those who accept and play by the rules.

If you haven't already, consider professional mountain biking it as entertainment, as one might consider the outcome of a professional wrestling match.
  • 12 2
 Occam's razor agrees with you @PinkyScar. The simplest solution tends to be the correct one. No way an amphetamine like Oxilofrine accidentially makes it into a 'supplement' especially when there is a rich history of it's use in Track and Field as a day-of-event stimulant.
  • 11 0
 Apparently there are a lot of supplements out there that contain Oxilofrine. It looks like they have been added to find a replacement for Epehdra, which has been banned.

www.naturalproductsinsider.com/litigation/researchers-find-stimulant-oxilofrine-14-dietary-supplement-brands
  • 2 0
 @vondur - this is exactly why Oxilofrine is a stimulant-of-choice. Rich history in Track and Field. If you get caught you have the perfect excuse "Oh Sh** it must of sneaked into a supplement**. Same story as Froome and Sabutamol - got busted for Oral/Nebulizer-like levels but has the perfect excuse - he's asthmatic. Yah right.
  • 14 0
 "Everybody's on steroids" -Nate Diaz
  • 11 1
 More importantly...where can i get them??
  • 5 2
 Maybe using Ryno Power...which is/was their supplement provider of record. Both are/were sponsored by them and they deflect any questions about RP in their interviews.
  • 7 0
 @yetirich: Probably deflecting as to not get sued. Unless they can prove the substances were in their supplement mentioning Ryno Power would not be smart.
  • 3 0
 @drunknride: Its interesting to read that Broc Trickle was a sponsored RP athlete and he popped positive during Supercross season and suspended by FIM for 5-methylhexan-2-amine, which is also a nasal decongestant. The list of RP athletes is quite impressive on the mtb side.
  • 2 0
 @yetirich: Had to look that up. It was withdrawn from the market as a nasal decongestant in the early 90's. It seems to be only used now as an energy supplement and is/has been for a while banned.
  • 2 0
 Graves has been using Alphamine ref. Image on vital mtb. That should kick you off well. Be a little careful though...has some nasty stuff in it.
  • 5 0
 If you check the vital thread someone has detectived an old photo of Graves from 2016 where has has a bunch of supplement bottles with him - one of the products he is using is a fat burner called PESciences Alphamine
A few posts later somebody shows the ingredient list and it contains Higenamine. So it seems Graves has been taking this stuff long term.
www.vitalmtb.com/forums/The-Hub,2/EWS-Doping-Thread-Removal,10326?page=5
  • 5 0
 @harrybrottman: you will also see the photo is from the EWS in Corral, Chile in March 2016... At that time Higenamine was totally legal and not on the WADA list until sometime in 2017.
  • 1 0
 @davetrumpore: Being close to the scene, do you know if it is well known be EWS racers that the substance was put on the list? It just seems to me that this product was part of Graves nutritional routine well before it became a banned supplement.
  • 2 1
 @davetrumpore: yes 1/1/2017 it was placed on the WADA list - so presumably Graves was using it throughout the 2017 season and the first 5 or more rounds rounds of of the 2018 season.
  • 5 1
 @harrybrottman: well no one knows what he was using in 2017-2018. I'm simply pointing out that that photo making the rounds from 2016 to be used as "proof" is actually of products fully legal at that time... Anything beyond that is just speculation at this point.
  • 1 0
 @harrybrottman: many fat burning pills powders have hidden mixes to make them effective or so people think green tea burns fat with ease?
  • 2 0
 @yetirich: I don't typically use supplements (other than protein) but I've been experimenting with Ryno Power lately. Although they claim "no banned substances" my fear is that they too could be unknowingly including it in their products. It all comes down to quality control. I'd like to know what their process is for guaranteeing that their products are banned substance free. What quality control measures do they have in place to ensure their suppliers are not mixing it in their supplies. I'm sure RP is just re-branded product from another supplement supplier.
  • 10 0
 its a new boost standard, boost performance!
  • 11 4
 One of my issues is: Why does a person that can do the TDF need asthma medication, personally i think it's cheating but then again what do i know
  • 10 2
 Exercise induced asthma is apparently quite common among those athletes. That volume of (in this case aerobic) exercise isn't actually good for you. Some doctors have argued that in cases of crazy events like the TDF it would be healthier for the athletes to compete with certain steroids etc.
  • 6 1
 Because if he didn't take it he would have an unfair disadvantage based upon a medical condition that he has no control over.
  • 16 9
 Plenty of high level endurance athletes have Asthma. They get so sad when you laugh at them for it. Must be a prime genetic condition to become a top athlete. Ekhe ekhem... oh I think I got it...
  • 1 0
 @WAKIdesigns: got a bag on way to you bro..in plain paper.. Of course...
  • 3 0
 I think the problem with asthma is the attacks, that are potentially fatal. So you'll have people that are fit and talented, but otherwise wouldn't be able to compete due to the risk of triggering an attack, not because the asthma makes them slow.
  • 1 1
 Oral sabutamol during out-of-competition training and prep is the perfect cycling drug since it has anabolic (muscle building) effects, but also cuts away fat and brings riders down to extreme low body fat percentages without the body consuming the muscles for energy. It's the ideal drug for optimizing your power-to-weight ratio for the cylcling grand tours. Need to take it orally, but if you ever get caught, you always have an excuse for having sabutamol in your system - you're "asthmatic". Puff, Puff, Froome, Froomey somehow left out of his documentary his ongoing battle with asthma....strange....Sky hella Dirty. Wiggins is a cheating wanker with his multiple triamcinolone TUEs (looks like your Scottish so hopefully not too offended!).
  • 5 0
 @tttyyler: yah... and somehow half of Norwegian xc skiing Olympic team has it. A few in Swedish. That is definitely ot a khe khe kheeeeincidence
  • 2 0
 @WAKIdesigns: for the record, if i'm not mistaken a couple of years ago the entire Norwegian biathlon team was suffering from asthma. Poor guys...
  • 1 0
 @WAKIdesigns: I don't follow pro sports closely enough to know about fake asthma cases. I just wanted to point out that an athlete with asthma isn't implausible. Most people probably associate asthma with the kid in school that was wheezing all day long and skipped Gym class, but there are milder cases that can play and compete, but would be susceptible to attacks if untreated.
  • 3 0
 I've got asthma. It appeared suddenly some time after 30. Had a bacterial bronchitis and once that got cured the coughing never quite went away and asthma attacks joined the party. I'm not a pro and I don't even race "local amateur events" anymore but I can tell you that while I'm not on my medication I could literary suffocate while laying in the bed in the evening. When I'm on my meds, I can have a normal life without the daily risk of getting an asthma seizure and suffocating and I have no problem doing sports or keeping up on the bike with my friends. Never felt like my meds give me a boost, just allow me to breathe normally. So that's why.
  • 1 0
 @tttyyler: I understand. Off course it’s possible.
  • 2 1
 Asthma is very common in elite sport due to the stress caused in your respiratory system
  • 1 0
 @enduroFactory: @enduroFactory: got any links to physiology sources to back up that statement? That participating in sports at an elite level (I'm guessing you mean sports that have a significant aerobic component) causes "stress" on the respiratory system that then induces a a new hypereactivity of the airways of the lung - something that the person would not have suffered from had they not trained so hard? I'm willing to read what you got but I'm skeptical
  • 1 0
 @tincancharlie: google search "exercise induced bronchiospasm"
  • 1 1
 @tincancharlie: it is perfectly possible to have trianing induced coughing attacks while being on top of the game, but I am pretty sure many of them overblow it to get the meds. Another great disease to have as a top competitior is allergies. I remember being 13-16yrs old having terrible allergy to dust and animal fur. I still have it but not as bad that I would literally get bronchionitis after being in a cellar or at the attic. They were giving me all sorts of funny meds, and I can tell you something as someone who goes to the gym a lot, who sees a super jacked caliesthenics dude in there: It is not too normal for a 15 year old to be able to do 100 rather good push ups Wink I did back then and it took me half of the winter to go from 20 to 100. It would now take me at least a year.
  • 1 0
 @xphysnerd: I'm well familiar with exercised induced asthma - but this means that someone has a hyperreactivity in their airways that is triggered by exercise. What enduroFactory's post seems to imply - and I could be reading this wrong - is that someone training and competing at an elite level may be, over time, increasing their risk of developing exercise induced asthma (compared to a non-elite athlete).

If I have exercise induced asthma - and then become an elite athlete - sure my training and competing at that high level will cause lots of asthma symptoms.

But if I don't have exercise induced asthma - and then become an elite athlete - over time does my chances of developing exericse induced asthma increase due to "the stress caused on your respiratory system"?
  • 1 0
 @tincancharlie: my wife has developed symptoms of Asthma when she was pregnant. She caughed like hell for 6 months straight and wasn’t allowed to take any medicine for it it disappeared suddenly. Then for few years ahead she had a few comebacks of it lasting for a month or so. She’s fine now. But this made me realize how someone can get prescribed some funky stuff. She wasn’t diagnosed but something was going on for sure.
  • 1 0
 @WAKIdesigns: asthma = hypereactivity of airways = someone's airways react to a stimulus or irritant that shouldn't cause such a reaction. Put someone with bad asthma in a small room with some cats or someone smoking cigarettes and their airways will swell and become obstructed. This is mediated by their immune system which can change over time - often kids and teenagers will not be asthmatic as adults - or adults will develop asthma (or food allergies) that they didn't have as kids. When someone is pregnant this also causes changes in the immune system - this can lead to a worsening or an improvement in asthma...or no change at all. and then when they are no longer pregnant they can revert back to how they were before. The human immune system is extremely complicated to say the least.
  • 2 0
 @tincancharlie: I am not saying asthma is some hax, I am just saying that I find it unlikely for a top athlete to have persisting asthma symptoms otherwise he wouldn’t be one. They will take advantage of the situation where they were prescribed one in the past.
  • 11 6
 To think that it’s just these two doing bad is ridiculous . I’m totally bummed by it even though we all knew this kind of shenanigans was just going on just under the surface, but Rude is so young to totally f*ck his career up. Sad times ...
  • 24 2
 It's only sad if this was an intentional act. And as of right now we don't know enough to know if this was truly accidental, purposeful, or even malicious. Let's hold up until we have more evidence before saying this totally f*cks a persons career or is indicative of sad times.
  • 2 3
 @ka-brap: understood but see how long redbull will take to make a decision on his future.
  • 4 0
 This is a tough one as both of these athletes have been such phenomenal ambassadors for the sport! These are public figures whose value does rest on the degree to which they are influential to the public. I personally hope that the explanations to the public are such that we can continue to see them. On the other hand- their results come at the cost of other athletes results. As we saw with Armstrong, them winning means others don’t and if those others don’t have the same advantages it could impact their ability to remain competitive and earn a living. So I think people should be put through as objective a wringer as possible by those able to judge these matters. I also hope we can be respectful and allow the complex processes to unfold without mob justice influencing anything. I’m so sorry Graves and camp have this to deal with in addition to the fight he is already engaged in. That sucks and must be overwhelming.
  • 5 2
 2 riders, once champions, but mostly off the pace last two seasons...I can't see any reason they would allow these drugs into their system with extremely lax testing. I am curious to what sponsor supplied the lawyer for Jared and Richie as he is same for both parties. I'm really want to believe this is all accidental, but its hard.
  • 8 0
 Can I smoke it?
  • 2 0
 Exactly! Do it get you high AF?
  • 4 0
 The only surprising thing is that people are surprised. Pro MTBers are no different from any other athletes. Do what needs to be done to keep ahead.
  • 4 0
 why such a delay between the results being made known to the athletes and to the general public? Could Pinkbike investigate into that, too?
  • 7 1
 Damien Oton two times world champ now .
  • 4 0
 Beta agonists are very potent at improving performance.

www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.2.430
  • 6 1
 So these are legal amphetamines that I can buy.?
Party party.
  • 5 4
 I know it's the off season and news is slow at the moment, but I think it's a bit unfair that there are 4 separate articles/interviews on @pinkbike at the moment covering this, especially since they've not even recieved their hearings date yet. It is especially unfair on Jared at the moment with what he's going through even when considering he did give pinkbike an interview on the matter.
  • 5 1
 Can we get these in London Drugs? I've got some KOMs to kill. #spiritofenduro
  • 1 0
 Neither Tyson Gay, Asafa Powell, or Sherone Simpson (who tested positive at the same time) had their bans fully overturned.

Each had their sentences reduced. Powell and Simpson to 6 months, after successfully arguing they unknowingly consumed Oxilofrine as an unmarked ingredient in a supplement. Gay to 12 months, largely for cooperating with the USADA. Gay lost is 2012 Olympic silver medal as a result of the positive test for Oxilofrine.
  • 1 0
 Track and Field is so dirty (I'm sure Andre de Grasse and new 2018 star Noah Lyles are clean thought - phenomenal natural talents) so it seems to me the T&F rotated from Pseudoedephrine-type stimulants as the preferred in-competition adrenaline booster to Oxilofrine conveniently at the same time that Oxi started showing up in these sketchy supplements because it is the PERFECT EXCUSE "I must have accidentally ingested it in a supplement'. It is along the same lines of aerobic sports and sabutamol (i.e. Chris Froome). Puff, Puff, Froome, Froome got busted for levels of Sabutamol that can only be explained by either a) an oral dose (illegal) or b) a concentrated nebuliser inhale (illegal) on the day of the crucial stage of the Vuelta. Since he, like many others, are 'asthmatic', he has the perfect backstop story in case he gets busted.
  • 2 1
 This list is rediculous. Needs to be simplified. If it’s over the counter then it’s fair game.
  • 2 1
 @mikelevy: it would be interesting to interview some of the EWS pros who are also in the UCI out of competition testing pools and discuss their practices and perceptions. It seems like a few of them left serious EWS competition around the same time a lot of athletes moved in to EWS who weren’t subject to the same testing. Of course, many were also ex DH pros and courses evolved, but I do wonder what insight they’d bring.
  • 4 0
 Amphetamines increase performance that's why meth heads are so good at math
  • 2 1
 I think WADA takes things too far. Look at what they did to Broc Tickle, ended his career for something small that probably didn't make a difference. Hopefully the penalties aren't too big here, but if how they've treated Broc is any example they'll get a multiple year ban and no chance to defend themselves. If these guys are intentionally taking performance enhancers I'm sure there are gnarlier things that they didn't get caught for.

WADA was declared "unfit for purpose" by 17 national anti-doping agencies. I'm starting to see why.
  • 2 0
 Couple things: WADA didn't do the test, and 17 countries declaring WADA unfit is more to do with turning a blind eye and probably being in cahoots with the Russians...
  • 1 0
 @ukr77: Oh I assumed they handled the testing because they were mentioned a few times in the article. I doubt they're in cahoots with the Russians, they hit Sharapova way too hard. They just suck at creating fair punishments and probably have too big of a list of banned substances.
  • 3 0
 Why eat all these supplements at all? To increase performance. Isn't that already doping? No, because it is allowed. Allowed doping.
  • 1 0
 Totally agree, doping happens every day in elite sport just within rules or right on the borderline.
  • 6 5
 So WADA expects the rider to be responsible for policing their banned substances? That's a full time medical job.

1. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS (AAS)
A. EXOGENOUS * AAS, INCLUDING:
1-androstenediol (5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol)
1-androstenedione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione)
1-androsterone (3α-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-ene-17-one)
1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one)
Bolandiol (estr-4-ene-3β,17β-diol)
Bolasterone
Calusterone
Clostebol
Danazol ([1,2]oxazolo[4',5':2,3]pregna-4-en-20-yn-17α-ol)
Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
Desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-17β-ol)
Drostanolone
Ethylestrenol (19-norpregna-4-en-17α-ol)
Fluoxymesterone
Formebolone
Furazabol (17α-methyl [1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3',4':2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol)
Gestrinone
Mestanolone
Mesterolone
Metandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
Metenolone
Methandriol
Methasterone (17β-hydroxy-2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-androstan-3-one)
Methyldienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one)
Methyl-1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
Methylnortestosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one)
Methyltestosterone
Metribolone (methyltrienolone, 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
Mibolerone
Norboletone
Norclostebol
Norethandrolone
Oxabolone
Oxandrolone
Oxymesterone
Oxymetholone
Prostanozol (17β-[(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)oxy]-1'H-pyrazolo[3,4:2,3]-5α-androstane)
Quinbolone
Stanozolol
Stanozolol
Stenbolone
Stenbolone
Tetrahydrogestrinone (17-hydroxy-18a-homo-19-nor-17α-pregna-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
Trenbolone (17β-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
B. ENDOGENOUS** AAS WHEN ADMINISTERED EXOGENOUSLY:
19-norandrostenediol (estr-4-ene-3,17-diol)
19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione)
Androstanolone (5α-dihydrotestosterone, 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one)
Androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol)
Androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione)
Boldenone
Boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione)
Nandrolone (19-nortestosterone)
Prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA, 3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one)
Testosterone
and their metabolites and isomers, including but not limited to:
3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one
5α-androst-2-ene-17-one
5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol
5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol
5α-androstane-3β,17α-diol
5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol
5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol
7α-hydroxy-DHEA
7β-hydroxy-DHEA
4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol)
5-androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione)
7-keto-DHEA
19-norandrosterone
19-noretiocholanolone
Androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol
Androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol
Androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol
Androst-5-ene-3α,17α-diol
Androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol
Androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol
Androsterone
Epi-dihydrotestosterone
Epitestosterone
Etiocholanolone
2. OTHER ANABOLIC AGENTS
Including, but not limited to:
Clenbuterol
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), e.g. andarine, LGD-4033, ostarine and RAD140;
Tibolone
Zeranol
Zilpaterol
For purposes of this section:
* “ exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily produced by the body naturally.
** “ endogenous” refers to a substance which is ordinarily produced by the body naturally.

The following diuretics and masking agents are prohibited, as are other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
Including, but not limited to:
• Desmopressin; probenecid; plasma expanders, e.g. intravenous administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol.
• Acetazolamide; amiloride; bumetanide; canrenone; chlortalidone; etacrynic acid; furosemide; indapamide; metolazone; spironolactone; thiazides, e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide; triamterene and vaptans, e.g. tolvaptan.


All selective and non-selective beta-2 agonists, including all optical isomers, are prohibited;
Including, but not limited to:
Fenoterol
Formoterol
Higenamine
Indacaterol
Olodaterol
Procaterol
Reproterol
Salbutamol
Salmeterol
Terbutaline
Tulobuterol
Vilanterol

1. ERYTHROPOIETINS (EPO) AND AGENTS AFFECTING ERYTHROPOIESIS, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO:
1.1 ERYTHROPOIETIN-RECEPTOR AGONISTS, E.G.
Darbepoetins (dEPO)
Erythropoietins (EPO)
EPO based constructs (EPO-Fc, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA))
EPO-mimetic agents and their constructs , e.g. CNTO-530, peginesatide;
1.2 HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR (HIF) ACTIVATING AGENTS, E.G.
Argon
Cobalt
Molidustat
Roxadustat (FG-4592)
Xenon
1.3 GATA INHIBITORS, E.G.
K-11706
1.4 TGF-BETA (TGF-Β) INHIBITORS, E.G.
Luspatercept
Sotatercept
1.5 INNATE REPAIR RECEPTOR AGONISTS, E.G.
Asialo EPO
Carbamylated EPO (CEPO)
2. PEPTIDE HORMONES AND HORMONE MODULATORS
2.1 CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN (CG) AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH) AND THEIR RELEASING FACTORS, IN MALES, E.G.
Buserelin
Deslorelin
Gonadorelin
Goserelin
Leuprorelin
Nafarelin
Triptorelin
2.2 CORTICOTROPHINS AND THEIR RELEASING FACTORS, E.G.
Corticorelin
2.3 GROWTH HORMONE (GH), ITS FRAGMENTS AND RELEASING FACTORS, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO:
Growth Hormone fragments , e.g. AOD-9604 and hGH 176-191;
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH), e.g. CJC-1293, CJC-1295, sermorelin and tesamorelin;
Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHS), e.g. ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics, e.g. anamorelin, ipamorelin and tabimorelin;
GH-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs), e.g. alexamorelin, GHRP-1, GHRP-2 (pralmorelin), GHRP-3, GHRP-4, GHRP-5, GHRP-6, and hexarelin;
3. GROWTH FACTORS AND GROWTH FACTOR MODULATORS, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO:
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs)
Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)
Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), and its analogues;
Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs)
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF)
Thymosin-β4 , and its derivatives e.g. TB-500;
Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)

1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to:
4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo)
Aminoglutethimide
Anastrozole
Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (androstatrienedione)
Androsta-3,5-diene-7,17-dione (arimistane)
Exemestane
Formestane
Letrozole
Testolactone

2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not limited to:
Raloxifene
Tamoxifen
Toremifene

3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to:
Clomifene
Cyclofenil
Fulvestrant

4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but not limited, to:
Myostatin inhibitors

5. Metabolic modulators:
Activators of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), eg. AICAR, SR9009;
Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists , e.g. 2-(2-methyl-4-((4-methyl-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thiazol-5-yl)methylthio)phenoxy) acetic acid (GW1516, GW501516);
Insulins , and insulin-mimetics;
Meldonium
Trimetazidine
  • 4 1
 Well, if you eat food from your local farmer(s) and focus on riding your damn bike there's no risk or problems, why go all nuts with chemicals for competitions?
  • 4 1
 You can test my pre race coffee and post race banana. I´m not sweating.
  • 2 1
 WADA is a big business that has to find positive results to keep itself funded and relevant. Meanwhile they have no problem removing the ban on Russia with full knowledge there was state sponsored large scale doping on hundreds of Russian atheletes. www.nytimes.com/2018/09/25/opinion/editorials/russia-olympics-anti-doping.html

If WADA really wanted to improve things they could offer (for a price) supplement testing and certification to specific brands who wanted the highest certification possible.
  • 2 0
 I would think these two have got nothing to lose compared to their supplement provider, if it turns out these substances are in fact included and unlabeled.
  • 6 1
 Stay strong Jared !!
  • 4 29
flag Gregorysmithj1 (Nov 26, 2018 at 11:05) (Below Threshold)
 by cheating? cool
  • 5 0
 @Gregorysmithj1: He has cancer
  • 2 1
 @Uhlrichl1: he will overcome it as Lance did.
  • 5 2
 Where can I get me some of these drugs though??????

Clearly they work! I'm looking for results.

f*ck me up!
  • 1 1
 Nothing surprising here, majority of professional athletes in any sport are using illegal substances to enhance their performance. I remember watching an interesting interview , cant remember the guys name , ex professional athlete , who said that the laboratories for making illegal substances are 5-10 years ahead of anti -doping agencies.
  • 2 0
 History does not bode well for these guys. I specifically do not give a flying F about road cycling any more because of rampant doping. Now Enduro? Really?
  • 1 0
 As long as drug testing is more stringent and accurate than supplement manufacture this issue will continue to arise. MMA and professional motocross both have similar examples.
  • 2 0
 We all need to realise that the little shreders are watching, I will keep my opinion to my self. Always had respect for both riders. We will see how this plays out.
  • 3 0
 At this point, Graves could test positive for crack-cocaine and I would still be rooting for him.
  • 2 0
 My opinion of both riders has been largely unchanged as a result of reading this. Whereas when a road rider gets popped, my opinion of them becomes a lot worse.
  • 2 0
 Youve still gotta have the skills to pay the bills! epic riders these two
  • 5 4
 This is seems to be way more talked about in road biking, extremely disappointing to see this become more prevalent in the enduro world.
  • 1 0
 I don't get why these athletes take these things. You're taking such a risk, the tests are there to catch you out, why risk your entire career?
  • 1 0
 And here is another one.. Methylsynephrine in Dietary Supplements: www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/ProductsIngredients/ucm493282.htm
  • 1 0
 Great article, but more important, stay strong Jared!!! You are the man regardless.
  • 1 0
 Where can I buy these substances ? I can't wait to be as fast as Rude / Graves !
  • 2 2
 "Higenamine is also a legal food supplement in Canada, the USA and the EU." Y no Amazon link???
  • 2 1
 Do it Jon Jones style and blame dick pills. 12 months max.
  • 1 0
 puff puff give motha F*****
  • 1 0
 whattabout those bent dick drugs?
  • 2 2
 WOW, PB is quick to bury these articles and posted 7 new articles about biking today!
  • 1 2
 just the usual news cycle that you see with all articles on the site... All four related articles are still on the homage and have been viewed collectively a few hundred thousand times, with comments in the hundreds and shares to social media in the thousands. Not to mention being picked up on and reposted by every other cycling related media outlet on the internet... I wouldn't exactly call that burying information (not to mention PB broke the story in the first place and provided follow up interviews, etc)
  • 1 0
 OH NO! Too much HO HO! Will Santa still come?
  • 1 0
 Time to hire a pecker checker
  • 1 1
 Randy is a clean rider. But he gets no coverage here, because Pinkbike. Pinkbike is for dopers.
  • 1 1
 OH Damn! Just like any money sport.
  • 1 0
 #strenghtforjared
  • 3 4
 Who is rude’s supp sponsor?! Ryno Power?!!!!! You did this... Wink
  • 1 2
 More bike and riding articles less chemistry and doping.
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