Factory Tour: Ibis' New Carbon Construction Facility in Pajaro, California

Jun 30, 2021
by Richard Cunningham  

Ibis Factory
FACTORY TOUR
The Pajaro Experiment
Ibis' factory is located in Pajaro, about a half hour south of their Santa Cruz headquarters. Solar panels power the entire operation.

Why the New Ibis Exie Was Developed at Home

Computer modeling at home and then handing off your frame configuration and carbon layup schedules to a trusted contractor in a faraway land will definitely get your bike in the ballgame. Today’s plethora of 30-pound trail bikes bear witness to that. If you want a 22-pound trail bike, however, you’ll need empirical data. That means building and breaking prototypes – a lot of them - in order to discover exactly where on the bicycle you can safely remove those eight pounds and still hit similar performance goals. That process begins with the frame and this is where cycling’s design-and-source model breaks down.

Carbon construction in Asia has become
Pajaro Experiment
Powerful software makes it possible to remotely design and evaluate every aspect of a frame, including its carbon layup schedules and the molds which will be used to produce it. Translating that information into tangible products, however, falls upon a factory that may be halfway around the world.
institutionalized. Understandably, factories are typically unwilling to deviate from their time-proven production processes, which makes it difficult to develop new methods or materials. Turnaround times for creating and testing prototypes can take weeks, even months, which compounds efforts to flesh out new concepts, or to produce a product that can significantly outperform the status quo. It can be done, but…

Ibis has trusted contractors in Asia that they plan to keep busy for the foreseeable future. That said, there were compelling reasons to develop and manufacture the Exie on home soil. Building a factory from the ground up would offer Ibis an opportunity to scrutinize every step of the process to discover ways to save energy and reduce labor. Short turnarounds between building and testing prototypes would encourage experimentation and could dramatically accelerate product development. Having everyone under one roof promised to fast-track the creative process and would quickly reveal weak links in the manufacturing chain.

Pajaro test victims
Empirical knowledge gained from building and breaking frames, however costly, is still the least expensive method to shed weight while maintaining strength and reliability.

bigquotesBecause we can make prototype frames here, we can mold a new frame layup and test it in the lab in less than a week. So, we learned a lot in a relatively short time. If we had to rely upon our Asian manufacturers, the turnaround for prototypes would have taken a month or more.Hans Heim

All would be for naught, however, if Ibis failed to slash the extraordinary amount of labor required to produce a carbon dual-suspension chassis. Depending upon its complexity, Ibis’ Asian vendors devote up to 86 man-hours to mold and finish one frame. The cost of living in and about Santa Cruz tops most US cities, so Ibis would need to work a small miracle to keep its made-in-USA products competitively priced.

Baby steps: Sometime around 2014, Ibis built a small carbon construction and testing lab in their Santa Cruz headquarters to do just that. The plan was to manufacture size-small Ripley frames (front triangles, actually) as a feasibility study for a future full-scale production facility.
layup process at Ibis Cycles
Ibis started in-house manufacturing its size-small Ripley frames in their Santa Cruz headquarters as a pilot project in 2014.

Ibis crushed a lot of carbon surfing the learning curve, but ultimately, their investment resulted in a new construction process that halved both energy and labor costs. By 2018, Ripley frames were popping out of the molds and into production, and Hans Heim had purchased the building that would become the birthplace of Exie.


Almost Local

Ongoing cost-is-no-object bidding wars between the State University and a dozen global tech corporations for industrial space in Santa Cruz forced Ibis to search elsewhere for a suitable factory location. As luck would have it, Hans Heim found a building a half-hour’s drive south of headquarters near Watsonville.

Idyllically located near the Pacific Ocean on agricultural land, the Pajaro factory was originally built and outfitted to be a terminal for an undersea fiber-optic cable. Plans changed, however, and the telecommunications corporation never occupied the facility. Hans said that a substantial part of the cost to re-purpose the building was paid for by recycling 60 thousand dollars of copper wire and selling off the back-up generator. It was as large as a diesel locomotive and could have supplied electricity to a small city. Ibis then converted the building to operate completely upon solar power.

Pajaro Experiment
Ruben Reyes (left) and Jesus Villarruel carefully close a mold for an Exie front triangle. Wall-mounted panels at each mold station automate the precise heat and pressure cycles required to cure carbon frames.

Today, the factory is staffed and ready for action. Almost all aspects of production take place in one large space to encourage interaction. Layup and molding stations are situated along two of the walls. The aluminum molds were developed by Ibis and are self-heating and pressure-regulated by computerized control centers. An advantage to their system is a seamless workflow. Teams of two will lay up a frame and then close it in the mold. While that one is curing, they simply move over to the next mold station and begin laying up another frame.

Pajaro Experiment
Sara Passantino had job offers from Space X and Ibis after earning her engineering degree. Her first task was to re-imagine the Exie's multitude of carbon layers into fewer, shape-conforming pieces.
Pajaro Experiment
Some of the Exie's patchwork of 120 pre-preg carbon appliques that will soon become a front triangle - a 200-piece reduction and a job well done.

Pajaro Experiment
Up to 42 layers are required to form one ear of this upper shock mount. Ibis stacks three layers of carbon before cutting the pieces, reducing the parts count to only 14. The white Teflon tube forms the mold for the frame's internal remote shock cable tunnel and is removed after curing.
Pajaro Experiment
Carbon pre-preg has the adhesion and consistency of black electrical tape at room temperature. Swatches are layered over a rigid foam mandrel that mimics the shape of the frame. This one's nearly complete.

Cross the room and as you enter the quality control and testing lab, you’ll pass a table stacked with sample frames in various states of destruction. Because testing reveals the quality of everyone’s work, most employees show up to watch when the engineers run impact tests – it’s the nerd version of huck to flat. The lab is outfitted to reproduce industry standard tests and test samples are pulled from production to assure there are no ongoing quality problems.

Pajaro Experiment
Preston Sandusky stands by as Sara Passantino prepares instrumentation for a destruction test. Rigorous testing and separate layup schedules are required for each frame size.

Stations for the composite layup engineers are centrally located so they can look over the shoulders of the technicians and see first-hand if there are issues (like bunching or crinkling of the carbon layers as they are placed around the mandrels) that could be solved by modifying the process. Ibis engineer Sara Passantino explained that most frames are laid up using a number of various sized rectangular shaped strips of carbon – averaging 300 pieces or more to wrap one front triangle. Her first task was to create shapes that would naturally conform to the frame’s contours, which both improved the strength of the frames and reduced the number of carbon pieces to 120.

Pajaro finishing booth
Exie frames require a minimum of sanding or filling, which makes it possible to eliminate paint, and the weight that comes with it.
Swingarm
Swingarms turned out to be the trickiest part of the Exie's development - which earned respect from the the crew for their Asian counterparts.

Further reductions in labor were built into the molding process to eliminate as many finishing steps as possible. Internal cable and hose tubes, pivot points, and bearing locations are molded in place to finished dimensions. When Exie frames emerge from the curing process, they require miniscule amounts of sanding, primarily to eliminate mold parting lines, but otherwise appear ready to assemble. Exie swingarms are molded in right and left halves, then bonded together in a second operation. To save weight and eliminate a pricey and environmentally unfriendly step, Exie frames are not painted. The carbon is left for all to see, under heat-transfer decals and protected by a ceramic coating less than a thousandth of an inch thick (.025mm).

The Kestrel Connection

Ibis successfully reduced the man-hours required to build a dual-suspension carbon frame from 86 to 35 hours – a figure that made it possible to move forward into full production. Much of that efficiency can be attributed to Ibis’ previous experience with composites and the simplifications and improvements in their manufacturing process. Without an experienced staff, however, the Exie project would have been much more problematic to launch. Enter the Kestrel connection.

Preston Sandusky, the boss of Ibis’ carbon manufacturing, was a co-owner of Kestrel – a pioneer of molded carbon fiber bicycle frame manufacturing. Kestrel’s facility was located near Santa Cruz, as were a number of aerospace
Kestrel 4000
Kestrel photo
composite manufactures – all of which had been shuttered before Ibis got into the game. Hans Heim was a fan of Kestrel bikes, so when the time came to build a factory, he reached out to Preston, who then reassembled the best of his previous crew to help launch the project. Whether your factory is in Asia or the USA, success ultimately depends on an experienced workforce. As Ibis expands production, there will be a pool of talented locals waiting to join up.

Will Ibis Succeed?

With the debut of their Pajaro factory, Ibis joins North America’s small, but growing group of composite bicycle and accessory manufacturers. Nobody, including the likes of Trek and Enve, is cranking out huge numbers, but the combined efforts of all players have assimilated enough momentum to prove without doubt that manufacturers here can compete with Asian-made products in the high-performance segment of the cycling business.

Hans says that Ibis has no plans to shift all of its manufacturing to the US. “Exie and the Pajaro facility are one leg of our three legged chair,” he explains. “We need our vendors in Asia to assure that we have the volume to serve our customers, but the pandemic has taught us that things can change fairly rapidly, so we will survive better if we don’t have all of our eggs in one basket.”
Pajaro Experiment

RIP Luis
Luis Valerio was a friend and employee of Preston Sanduski at Kestrel who signed on to start Ibis' Ripley project back in 2014. He was also instrumental in founding the Pajaro factory. Sadly, Luis lost his life to Covid 19 at home while the factory was closed during the peak of the pandemic. Ibis is still reeling from this unexpected tragedy.

For now, Ibis’s timing couldn’t be better. World Cup XC racing is gathering momentum. Core riders are rediscovering the joy of riding lightweight, super capable cross-country machines. Perhaps more telling is that bicycle prices are rising at a faster rate than wages in the USA, and financial soothsayers predict that inflation is going to accelerate that trend, especially for imported items. Making their upper-end range at home could offset some of those price increases for US customers and ultimately make Ibis more competitively priced in the European marketplace. Only time will tell, but it’s clear that Ibis has done their homework and all signals appear to be green for the Exie rollout. We wish them the best.


111 Comments

  • 133 0
 Congratulations to the team at Ibis, it's awesome to see another bike fully designed, developed, and produced locally!
  • 44 0
 BIG Congrats to IBIS. Way to go, hoping that this type of work can pave the way for more domestic manufacturing Smile
  • 15 1
 Wow so cool. First that sick paintjob (controversial I know) and now this...I've never really considered an Ibis but will have to look closer when deciding on my next bike given this news.
  • 10 0
 I'm also cheering for these guys. Let's just see how they perfect the production model, and develop cost saving methods through innovation. I would take an educated guess that this is only the beginning and I'll wager a few 805's on tap that Ibis has not only entered into the elite boutique category (porsche of bikes?) but will also perfect an automated process that will allow them to produce carbon frames more along the lines of what GG has done in Colorado.
You don't build this type of operation without a bigger prize in mind. Good on you Ibis- USA is Cool.
  • 10 0
 I'm cheering hard for these guys.
  • 13 4
 “Had offers from Space X and Ibis” (picks Ibis). Bold strategy Cotton, let’s see if it works out for her
  • 38 0
 Pretty easy choice if you believe the stories of the Space X work environment.

Be expected to work 12 hours a day, 6 days a week, or, work for a bike company where you actually have some semblance of an outside life.

Elon Musk is the world’s biggest look.
  • 11 3
 @dungeonbeast: Space Billionaires suck.
  • 2 10
flag iffy (Jun 30, 2021 at 11:50) (Below Threshold)
 Are Space X still looking for canteen staff?
  • 3 0
 Also, it's not like she has to work at the same place for the rest of her life
  • 3 0
 @dungeonbeast: it’s only an easy choice depending on the person. Some people like bikes more. Some people like rockets and spacecraft more. Some people like to work hard. (Not saying Sara doesn’t work hard she must if she got an offer from SpaceX)
  • 8 6
 @dungeonbeast: this is a lie. As someone who’s worked for a bunch of these brands I can tell you there is no different expectations to get stuff done on time. The only expectation is that you accept lower pay because you are working on your “passion”.

Income curves are typically set early in your twenties. Not to say it’s the same for everyone but SpaceX is a household name at this point, most people don’t know what an Ibis is let alone the bike company it shares its name with or the Pilotwings64 character.

Hence the interesting choice
  • 12 1
 @usedbikestuff: What's a lie? An acquaintance worked for SpaceX, and what @dungeonbeast said was accurate. You're there to work your ass off and sacrifice your free time for the privilege of working for SpaceX. And don't expect any significant overtime for doing it.

SpaceX might have more pull when you're putting together a CV after the fact, but I'd say pursuing a healthy work/life balance while also working at a place that aligns with your interests is indeed a bold (and smart) strategy.
  • 10 0
 @dungeonbeast: Can confirm. Co-worker of mine previously worked at Space-X and his day was simple: wake up at 6, work 7am-8pm, crash in bed at 10pm. Repeat. (often Sat/Sun too). Burnout is standard operating procedure.
  • 14 1
 @usedbikestuff: I’ve spoken with SpaceX and Tesla employees. You are very much expected to work very long hours and weekends in exchange for the right to put those companies on your CV. The draw is that if you can survive being sucked of all your worth for 3-5 years you can write your own ticket to your next job. I personally wouldn’t want to give up my free time and health in my younger years to make a bit more money when I’m older and can’t enjoy my body as much. Elon is known for being exploitive of all his workers, from laborers to ‘skilled’ professionals.

I have close friends who are engineers for major bike brands. They have a great work/life balance and make enough to live decently. That seems like a much more desirable life to me, and probably many others.

For any individual, the choice is obviously personal, but I think it’s stupid to make a statement implying it was a silly decision to take a job at Ibis over SpaceX.

And again Elon is a kook.
  • 4 1
 @usedbikestuff: To some people Space is their passion, so I'm not sure this example applies here.
  • 2 0
 @bikerbarrett: I think you’re losing the the forest through the trees.

Work for a company where you are expected to put in 70+ hour weeks on the regular (SpaceX). Or one where presumably you are not (Ibis) (I realize this is presumption, but again, knowing people in the bike industry and having met the owner of Ibis who visited my remote rural town, it’s an reasonable guess).

Why would that be a bad decision?
  • 5 1
 @jayacheess: yea and what I’m saying is that working for a bike company can have the same expectations that you’re working after hours on calls with Taiwan and weekends.

You’re assuming that because it’s bikes it’s all bongs and berms. I’d say it can be even worse because you work super hard on stuff you are passionate about only to have every forum complain about it and another company launch something later that day.

Specialized, Dorel and Trek, the most likely corporations for people to get into the industry, are all located in places that are extremely expensive compared to the wages paid. Livable housing in two of those markets is a minimum of 45-60 minutes drive or requires a multitude of roommates. Not exactly a dream scenario if you are getting to the family phase of life. Work/life balance isn’t better, just different. You’re in traffic instead of at a desk.

I never said it was a silly, stupid or dumb decision. I quoted a movie that it was a bold strategy, especially considering that SpaceX might go public. Wouldn’t be a bad time to ride that space train to the moon.
  • 2 0
 @usedbikestuff: ah, I now see what you're getting at. But I don't think that's the case at many bike companies. You're speaking in hypotheticals, while at SpaceX, it's a fact that work/life balance is terrible. Maybe she found that Ibis is one of the good ones?
  • 2 1
 @jayacheess: no I’m speaking from the bike side of the experience and it certainly isn’t the same everywhere. Still remains a bold strategy Cotton.
  • 7 3
 @dungeonbeast: There's no reason to hate on Elon Musk. I know people who also work for him, they work extremely hard long hours, but they do find very deep meaning in the mission. And I don't think that should be mocked. Nor should turning that job down. People should find what fits them.
  • 1 0
 @usedbikestuff: fair enough. I’m sure there are bike industry jobs where the balance is off too. The whole system needs a reset
  • 11 0
 @mark4444: there are lots of reasons to hate on Elon. Worker exploitation, tax avoidance, falsely advertising his role in various companies.
  • 2 0
 @usedbikestuff: Trek HQ is located in Waterloo, WI, a city whose cost of living is below the national average.
  • 20 1
 @Henryo:

Luck favors the bold. For everyone ruminating about SpaceX, you might flip that narrative and wonder instead how Ibis is an amazing employer that is set apart by a very egalitarian methodology, nurturing those who wish to try different roles within the organization and focuses on super hard projects that take years to come to fruition.

While she may 'move on' from Ibis as she grows stronger and more professional in her career journey, as the sole female designer at Ibis and part owner I'm stoked that she chose to use her powers of engineering and artistic sensibilities to propel mere mortals on two wheels.

I can say that she is a force to be reckoned with and will laugh at these comments about her life and career choices. As with all the women of Ibis, we have all become experts at what we do and we amplify each other and support all our team members.

Carry on because we will continue doing what we are passionate about and be rewarded with a company that cares and takes care of us and in turn will make bikes you love to ride.

- Roxy Lo,
Industrial Designer, Partner, Ibis Cycles
  • 2 0
 @ibiscycles: I'm happy that she'd rather help make bicycles for regular people than help an egomaniacal billionaire live out his fantasy of walking on Mars. Looking forward to buying an Ibis one day. Smile
  • 1 0
 @ibiscycles: And you know what? Roxy kicks ass as well.
www.bikemag.com/features/profiles/breaking-the-mold
  • 2 0
 I'm ready to retire from Boeing and go work there for bikes and powerbars.
  • 9 0
 This new location is for the birds.
  • 7 0
 @ibiscycles Kudos for investing in domestic production.
  • 12 8
 Ibis successfully reduced the man-hours required to build a dual-suspension carbon frame from 86 to 35 hours


NOW! take this back to asia and come back with $1400 carbon full sus frames.
  • 4 0
 I was going to make a snarky comment about the $4,500 frame then realized the UK-made Hope HB 130 frame is more than that... about 5,000 in freedom units.

Anyways, my crystal ball says direct to consumer brands will continue to grow at a steady rate for the next 100 years.
  • 2 0
 this.

kudos for the engineering innovation and using renewable energy.

would be fantastic if they shared the innovation and incentivise their suppliers to follow on renewable energy so "the rest of us" can afford their products as well.
  • 1 0
 Great move IBIS - excited to see bike frames made in USA. I’ve always disliked buying products from overseas especially Asia. I’ll pay a premium to buy products made here. I’ve always disliked labor, environment standards or lack thereof in Asia. We need to keep our dollars in USA and tell China to go F*** itself.
  • 14 14
 Cool experiment and thumbs up on bringing manufacturing back to the US. Now do it in a state that doesn't tax you to death, has reasonably priced land and building requirements/costs, and lower cost of living for your employees. This will enable a facility and product at a cost that will actually scale to reduce your dependence on Asia. Then pass the savings on to your customers.
  • 25 8
 Totally. Just uproot your entire company, reincorporate in a new state, establish new distribution networks, build a new facility, and hire and then train staff to do the job that your previous staff had been expertly doing. That shouldn’t cause any delays or require any effort that would then have to be passed along to consumers to make up for the production lag.
  • 17 14
 @leifgren: gotta love the fantasy world these rupublican types live in
  • 2 1
 Nailed it.
  • 9 1
 @leifgren - you're not wrong, you're not. But Kleinschuster does have a point too. And some companies are indeed doing just that.
  • 6 0
 @klapsys: He does have valid theoretical points, they’re just not realistic in this situation. In concept, that is a decent roadmap for American production. However, one can look at Bentonville, AR or the inland empire in CA to see that the balance shifts over time to where land and wages catch up to you at some point. And then you’re doing the whole exercise all over again.
  • 6 2
 @leifgren: most manufactures have headquarters separate from actual manufacturing site specifically to realize benefits on cost of real estate, building codes, utilities, taxes, wages, logistics or others. I didn't tell them to move their whole business. They themselves claim this is a small proof of concept. If they truly want to be competitive at scale they are starting on their back foot by expecting to cost effectively grow in CA. It's not impossible but it could be considerably easier for them to achieve their goal in a different state. There are blue ones and red ones that offer better opportunities for @norcalbike who unnecessarily wants to make this political discussion. They also wouldn't turn off their little factory before having an operational site somewhere else that would support full scale requirements, a bit hyperbolic on you there. Observe Fox Suspension's transition away from CA to GA.
  • 4 1
 @kleinschuster: I don’t think it’s hyperbolic at all given the production scales and margins that a smallish company like Ibis works on. And the costs to have a decentralized manufacturing facility, while maintaining the oversight and controls mentioned in the story, are just too high for a company like Ibis to cover while maintaining current production. But I do acknowledge and agree that there are several other companies, and entire industries, where your model works. I just don’t think that applies here.
  • 2 0
 The thing these types of articles don't explore is to what extent the small domestic facility is in any way profitable. Just speculation but guessing the "other" part of the business subsidizes the domestic production.
  • 4 0
 @kleinschuster: Do not forget there a lot more to manufacturing than just making the stuff. You need to have I.T. support, documentation department, accounting, quality control (which is a HUGE EXPENSE), shipping cost, taxes on purchased supplies, gauging support, engineers that oversee the production and make real time changes, tooling makers and maintenance on said tools, machine maintenance, taxes on everything, ect ect, ect.

All those people get paid a lot more in CA than other states and that adds up fast.
It'a miracle any mfg in the U.S.A makes any money at all.
  • 3 0
 Proud of you Ibis. Way to step it up and thinking of better ways to make a bike and to protect our environment.
  • 3 0
 This is awesome. MADE IN USA is reason enough for me to invest in an IBIS next time around.
  • 3 0
 So great to see a company invest in domestic production! Keep it up Ibis!
  • 4 2
 GG says it is kicking out carbon frames in 8 hours. If that's true, other manufacturers have a long way to catch up to them.
  • 1 0
 Thats about right for most frames i was wondering what the 35 hours was including , maybe the entire process including tooling finishing etc is all lumped in and amortized into that figure
  • 1 0
 I would say the figure provided here is from pressing go on starting to produce the frame to getting it out the door. We produce a lot of carbon stuff for aerospace and 40 hours is about the time we take to get an individual structure out of the door in a finished state.
  • 5 0
 @Compositepro: GG frames aren't made in a traditional carbon process. Completely apples to oranges comparison.
  • 7 0
 GG sure as shit isn't making 22lb trail bikes!
  • 1 2
 @nouseforaname: that's the point...why bake an orange when you can bake an apple
  • 3 0
 @foggnm: see bishop mikes comment above you.
  • 1 0
 I bet GG is quoting their takt time not cycle time for those frames.

Boeing is able to build around 3 737 jets every day but you better believe it it take more than 8 hours to completely assemble a jet.

IBIS, in this article, are talking about cycle time i.e. the total touch time from beginning of layup to finish/inspection of completed frame. GG is likely quoting takt time - how frequently they are able produce 1 frame.
  • 3 0
 @loudv8noises: they said man hours, not cycle time.
  • 1 0
 @loudv8noises: this was my point exactly is the entire process in the 35 hours theres a company that can produce a carbon frame in germany from material in the mould to demoulding no layup or shit needed its done using 3d woven preforms
  • 1 0
 @nouseforaname: i think youll find your definition of traditional and fibre placement are at odds its pretty common in our world a bike company using it might be novel in a shitty bike industry but the rest is pretty common stuff
  • 2 0
 @Compositepro: I was only referencing the bike industry. My name certainly isnt Compositepro so I wouldn't claim to be talking as a pro either.
  • 1 2
 @nouseforaname: what im supposing is the bike is pretty broke ass ive lost count now of the amount of companies that have big f*ck off ideas then realise theyre not prepared to risk anything other than the cheapest way to market whilst piling a shit ton if marketing bollocks in there I can tell you one thing though theres lots of people out there who sit in on aerospace blah blah meetings pick up some key words and learn by listening in they then go on pretend they invented this shit …. The two are literally worlds apart. Im not having a pop at you but these f*cking magazine article type things barely touch the surface of whats being done in industry
  • 4 1
 Finally we say stop to China manufacturing ... better late than never
  • 8 0
 But will we still send them our hazardous waste?.
  • 15 0
 Taiwan isn't China. Unless you are Chinese or the WHO...
  • 3 1
 I mean most decent frames aren't produced in China...
  • 1 1
 @93EXCivic: Santa Cruz has been using vendors in china for years. I'd say they are better than decent.
  • 1 0
 Let me modify to "south-east Asia"
  • 1 0
 Can anyone recommend a large IBIS dealer where I can purchase a bike? There are NO dealers in my neck of the woods in central Florida. Thanks
  • 2 0
 Pajaro E/S Watson, ese. Con Safos
  • 2 0
 This is a great step forward.
  • 2 3
 Doesn’t mean a thing if you can’t put some bling on those frames…..ie Shimano, SRAM and every other Taiwan / Chinese sourced components. Can’t wait till ALL components are manufactured in the USA
  • 2 0
 Bring back the Paul derailleur!
  • 2 4
 Stoked to hear about U.S. manufacturing, but less stoked to hear that they need help because the current crew doesn't have enough experience...riding carbon bikes has always scared me a bit (yes I currently ride one) ever since all of those catastrophic carbon failures back in the early days (90's)....hopefully they have good QA!
  • 2 0
 Congrats Ibis! Looking forward to the future! Smile
  • 1 0
 Made in the U.S.A. Is the best way to keep my business! Keep up the great work IBIS!!
  • 1 0
 35 man-hours/frame #doubt
  • 1 0
 Cut the labor hours in half so the bike should be cheaper right....?
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