Tech Tuesday: Volume Spacers and Spring Curves

Oct 19, 2022 at 15:30
by Samuel McMain  
It's been ten years since the last Tech Tuesday article, so it's probably time to get this educational series rolling again. All of the previous articles can be accessed here, and it's worth taking a few minutes out of your day to watch 16-year-old Mike Levy explain how to fix a flat. —Kaz

Words: Samuel McMain
Photos: Ryan Palmer

How to fine-tune your ride.

Dialing in your suspension is a time-consuming task. We get it and we’ve all been there too. Setting your sag is one thing (that we covered here), but diving even deeper to optimize your spring curve is a task that involves more than just a shock pump, a measuring tape and a wall to lean on. But as with most things suspension-related, an increase in investment correlates strongly with an increase in performance and comfort on the trail. The purpose of this edition of Tech Tuesday is to demystify the use and principles of volume spacers and arm you with the know-how to continue down the path fine-tuning your ride.

Speak the language:

Air chamber – Your suspension’s spring, this is a chamber filled with pressurized air that is compressed as your suspension moves through its travel

Air volume – The size (volume) of your air chamber

Spring rate – How much force is required to compress your air spring (air chamber)

Spring curve – A representation of how your spring rate changes throughout suspension travel

Volume spacer – An object that can be added or removed from your suspension’s air chamber to increase or decrease the air volume

Bottom-out – To fully use your suspension’s travel

Bottom-out resistance – How hard it is to achieve bottom-out

Mid-stroke – The middle part of the suspension travel

Supportive – A characteristic feeling of a suspension setup that resists moving too easily into travel

Progressive – A spring curve that increases in spring rate through travel

Linear – A spring curve that keeps a constant spring rate through travel

What you’ll need: Something to note current pressure, a shock pump and whatever tool is needed to access your suspension’s air chamber. Consult your user manual on that last one.

What the heck is a spring curve and why is it important?

Before we can start shoving those colorful little volume spacers in our forks and shocks, it’s important to understand why we would even want to do such a thing in the first place. In fact, by the end of this post, some of you might actually want to remove some spacers. Intrigued? Read on.

To start with, your spring curve is a representation of how your spring rate changes as your suspension moves through its travel. With a coil spring, the spring rate remains unchanged throughout the travel, while air springs are always progressive. As you move through travel in an air spring (be it in an air fork or air shock), the air chamber (volume) shrinks while the amount of air in that chamber stays constant—in other words, the air is forced to compress and increase in pressure. The more air is compressed, the more force it takes to compress it further. This principle is why air springs work as well, springs.

When we talk about air suspension being progressive, we mean that the spring curve of an air spring increases in rate the farther you move into travel. The last centimeter of travel is harder to move through than the first centimeter.

So, how can we use the progressive nature of air springs to our advantage on the trail?

A highly accurate graph, which is certainly to be used for scientific purposes and not just for a visual illustration. Based on the spring curve for an Ohlins TTX rear shock.

The basics of using progression

Hold on to your butts; this is going to be a quick and dirty explanation. In a few words, if you’re bottoming out frequently, but your sag is correctly set, add a volume spacer to reduce air chamber volume and increase the rate of progression in your suspension. Reducing volume makes your suspension firmer sooner in the travel, increasing the spring rate in the mid and end-stroke.

On the other hand, if your sag is set correctly and you can’t seem to use your travel fully, removing a spacer and increasing air chamber volume makes the middle and end of suspension travel softer and easier to move through. This would be changing your spring curve to be more linear instead of progressive.

Sound simple? Well, there are some caveats to it all (that we can harness for performance profit!)

This fork might need a reduction in volume.

This fork might need an increase in volume.

Air chamber volume and its effects on spring curve

Before we really start to unpack this, we need to talk about the part of the spring curve that an air chamber’s volume affects. Because in the real world, changing air chamber volume only affects part of your spring curve—the mid-stroke and end-stroke.

The initial part of travel, say, roughly the first 35%, is only affected by the air pressure. See also, sag. This is slightly a simplification of the actual physics of it all, but for our purposes let’s say that the first part of your suspension travel is only affected by the PSI reading on your shock pump.

But that leaves the majority of your suspension up in the air (pun intended) to be modified by adjusting volume. Here are the basics:

Reduce volume by adding spacers: slightly increase spring rate in the mid-stroke, greatly increase spring rate in the end-stroke.

Increase volume by removing spacers: slightly decrease spring rate in the mid-stroke, greatly decrease spring rate in the end-stroke.

Take a minute to think about the implications here; these basic statements aren’t as basic as they may seem. Here are some quick tips you can apply to your suspension tuning:

Add volume spacers to reduce the frequency of bottom-outs
Remove volume spacers to make it easier to use your full travel
Add volume spacers and decrease air pressure to make your suspension more supple while maintaining bottom-out resistance
Remove volume spacers and increase air pressure to make your suspension more supportive initially while maintaining bottom-out resistance

Hold up, where did those last two options come from?

Not all suspension uses volume reduction. While the Fox 36 (top) has only one chamber that is modified by spacers, an EXT Era has two air chambers that are adjusted independently to modify overall spring curve.

Adjusting air pressure when adding/removing volume spacers

Yeah, this is totally a thing you can do. Adjusting air pressure while also changing air chamber volume allows you to fine-tune the two extreme ends of the spring curve independently of each other. You might think of it this way, adjust your air pressure to adjust how you want the initial part of your travel to feel, then add or remove volume spacers to achieve the desired bottom-out resistance.

What about mid-stroke support? People are always talking about mid-stroke support these days. Well, in short, you can’t have your cake and eat it too—usually. It’s very difficult to achieve exactly the amount of mid-stroke support you want while also dialing in the initial and end-strokes. Want more mid-stroke support? You can either bump up pressure or decrease volume (both of which affect one end of the spring curve as well as the mid-stroke).

There are ways to get around this, but they have to do with how your particular fork or shock was designed and often involve the size of your negative air chamber. For example, Rock Shox’s MegNeg air can for the SuperDeluxe rear shock increases the negative air chamber volume, which increases mid-stroke support by offsetting positive air chamber forces farther into the initial part of the travel, allowing you to run a higher positive pressure. There’s more going on there, but that’s for a future post.

Adding/removing volume spacers on your fork/shock

For the most common forks and shock out there, Fox and RockShox, the process of adding or removing volume spacers is pretty straightforward. Each company uses plastic “pucks” for their forks that are attached to the bottom of the top cap of the fork’s air chamber. Rear shocks will differ slightly, but most use a similar plastic puck that slots upside the air chamber of the shock near the top of the shock or clips around the air can.

The procedure for adjusting volume spaces in suspension can be broken down into a few key steps, which we’ll outline below. However, note that there may be significant differences between various shocks and forks, so be sure to check your user manual for specific instructions. Some brands, like Cane Creek, DVO and Ohlins, don’t actually use plastic pucks in their forks and adjust air chamber volume differently, and the process for doing such on those suspension designs isn’t going to look like what we outline here. Again, check your user manual.

Some forks have socket or wrench flats, others use a cassette tool.

Step 1: Note your air pressure! Before you do anything to your suspension, make sure you know what pressure (and the rest of your settings) you are running. This doesn’t mean just sticking a shock pump on, as the increase in air volume from the hose of the shock pump will actually slightly decrease the pressure of your air chamber. This is especially important in air shocks with small air chambers running high pressures—for example, connecting a shock pump to a DVO Topaz T3 caused the pressure to drop from 114psi to 109psi. Take your reading after filling your suspension, and write it down somewhere for future reference.

Step 2: Depressurize your system! This is a HUGE safety step. Never, ever attempt to disassemble your suspension with it pressurized. I’ve seen top caps go through ceiling tiles and riders go to the ER with oil sprayed at high pressure into their eyes. Seriously, make sure there is no air in the fork.

To do this, use your shock pump’s air release valve to let the air out of your suspension. Remember that there’s a pressurized negative chamber as well, and you’ll need to cycle your suspension while slowly releasing pressure to equalize both chambers for depressurization. On a rear shock where you will be removing the whole air can, a pressurized negative chamber will make it very difficult (and possibly dangerous) to actually remove the air can.

Step 3: Remove the top cap or air can. On most forks, you’ll need a dedicated non-chamfered socket to remove the top cap. Do not use a standard chamfered socket as you’ll round the flats of the top cap. A top cap-specific, champferless socket is the best tool for the job, but a pair of Knipex pliers work well too. Crescent wrenches should be avoided, but can be used in a pinch. Remember, that top cap is made of soft aluminum and easily damaged. Some forks, like Rock Shox and Ohlins forks, actually use a standard cassette tool to remove the top cap.

For rear shocks, assuming you’ve fully depressurized the system, most air cans will unscrew (lefty loosey) from the shock body. Some other shocks, like a Fox Float X2, Cane Creek DB IL or DVO Topaz T3, slide open, not unscrew. Refer to your user manual if you’re unsure what part of the shock is the air can, as well as how to get into it.

Step 4: Note the current volume spacer(s) already in your suspension. Again, this is super important. Make you know what your baseline is before making any changes; it’s impossible to make comparisons to the previous set-up if you don’t know what that set-up was.

Step 5: Add or remove spacers. Most fork volume spacers clip or screw together, while some, notably Cane Creek and MRP, use self-contained systems. Refer to your user manual to see how your fork gets things done.

On rear shocks, the process is similar but with some additional rules. First and foremost, avoid using a metal tool to remove spacers. You run the risk of scratching internal surfaces and ruining seals/leaking oil/pressure. If you can’t get a spacer out with your fingers, find something plastic to do the job. Unless you’re a master at Operation, try to avoid using a metal pick. Additionally, note where and how the spacers are located and oriented. Some rear shocks allow for the adjustment of both positive and negative air chambers, so make sure you’re adjusting the right one! Again, refer to your user manual.

Step 6: Re-install the air can or top cap. Be especially careful not to cross-thread or damage o-rings. Additionally, rear shock air cans generally only need to be hand tight if of the screwed-on variety, like a car’s oil filter (but refer to your user manual). Top caps need to be a bit tighter, but use a torque wrench and be very careful not to over tighten things. See also: Very expensive parts to replace if damaged.

Step 7: Inflate. Reconnect and inflate your suspension back to your original pressure. After the first 50psi, stop and cycle the suspension—give it a good compression, but it doesn’t need to bottom out—to equalize the negative and positive chambers—you can damage things if you skip this step! When you arrive at your desired pressure, cycle the suspension a few times to make sure things are fully equalized. It can take 10-15 cycles in some cases. Then check the pressure again, as it will lower slightly when the pressure equalizes between chambers. In some cases, it might need a little top-off.

Step 8:: Go Ride!

Testing your new setup!

Rule one of suspension set up reads thus; Thou shall not change more than one setting at a time. This means you should not make an adjustment in pressure at the same time as adding or removing volume spacers or changing damping. Why? If you change more than one variable, how do you know which variable caused a change in how your suspension feels?

With that in mind, if you changed air pressure or volume, chances are you will need to tweak another setting, but resist doing so until you’ve done a lap or two on your test loop so you get a feel for what needs a tweak.

Speaking of test loops, pick one that is representative of the riding you normally do. It should include the following aspects: high-speed chunder (to test initial suppleness), big but slow compressions like tight berms, G-outs or hard braking segments (to test mid-stroke support) and a few hard hits (to test bottom-out resistance). You don’t need to go out and find the gnarliest huck-to-flat as that’s probably not something you’ll ride every day, and you’ll end up with a set-up that’s too stiff. Likewise, don’t sell yourself short or you’ll end up with a setup that blows through travel too easily.

Your test loop should also be easily accessible, fun and highly repeatable. Say, it should be doable to run it 2 or more times in an hour. It’s hard to compare runs that are hours or days apart.

Keep a page of notes on your phone or notepad with your impressions each run and/or at different settings. The farther you go into fine-tuning your set-up, the more you’ll rely on your notes to recall past settings and how they felt.

On a final note, the weather will significantly affect how your suspension feels. Riding in near-freezing temps will make your suspension perform differently than on a hot summer day. Keep things consistent!

Final considerations

The fine-tuning of suspension takes time, especially since you need to partially disassemble your suspension to make changes. Patience is key, and keep in mind that the process is as much about finding what doesn’t work as it is about finding what does. And on that note, what works will change from venue to venue—your ideal setup for a mid-summer bike park day will be different than what you’ll run mid-winter in sloppy, slow roots and mud. This highlights the importance of keeping notes of your settings.

However, that’s not to say that you can’t find a set-up that more or less suits 90% of your riding, compromising a bit on the outliers.

Our last piece of advice is this: try new things. No suspension setup is ever dialed and humans are remarkably good at adjusting and adapting. What you might think is a perfect setup one day might actually feel terrible after playing around with settings, but you’ll never find that out if you don’t change things up.


  • 104 1
 Does anyone remember the volume spacer arms race when people first started using these things? Bro, you only ride with 4 spacers? I charge so hard I need 7! I remember riding other people's forks that had no initial or mid stroke support at all- it was just fork dive into a wall of progression.

At this point with my Lyrik ultimate I've removed all the volume spacers and added a ton of air pressure. It rides so much better than the old days of even 2 spacers.
  • 9 1
 I found half a spacer was the sweet spot for me in the Lyrik!
  • 17 0
 Same. 36 Elite, no spacers. Can actually get all the travel when needed. Granted I’m only 160lbs.
  • 81 0
 @sebbeaulieu: bro I’m only running a quarter of a spacer.
  • 7 1
 Maybe I don't ride right, or I'm too light, but I don't need fork volume reducers. I run a little higher pressure to get the support and spring I need.

Now the back, that thing gets all the reducers, at least up until now riding a progressive suspension (decreasing leverage ratio). The New fox float X is pretty good with the medium reducer in it.
  • 66 0
 @babathehutt: I make custom spacers in 1/16 increments to really dial this in. I also have a line of ebike specific spacers but they cost 2X more because they are spEcific.
  • 10 1
 MRP Ramp Control. Expensive for what it is, but does what it says....
  • 12 1
 Those types of riders will always find something to look down their nose at you for. My eyes glaze over when I hear people criticizing others for what tire pressure they run and whether or not they run inserts.
  • 7 0
 I'm on a '23 Pike Ultimate and for the first time ever on a Pike, I'm 3 psi above the air recommendation for my weight and zero tokens. With all other Pikes, I was under on psi and had 2 tokens.
  • 3 0
 @krka73: MRP Ramp Control is much better than spacers. Worth the money. I needed it on my Fox 36 Fit4. On my 38 Grip 2 not so much. But I dig the MRP!
  • 2 0
 I believe i remember seeing Greg Minnars Hightower v1 Siracha red that had a monarch plus was completely stuffed with red bands. Sea otter I think.
  • 3 0
 still a fan of 2 spacers i run zero compression though
  • 21 1
 Another common opinion is that badass riders use either a super high compression ratio (i.e. loads of tokens) or a coil spring - super progressive spring rate or fully linear spring rate. Never reduce the compression ratio ... unless you get rid of it altogether.

Even this article - helpful as it is - contains misconceptions, such as equating spring rate with spring force. For example, it states that a higher compression ratio (more tokens) slightly reduces mid-stroke support. That's true if the base pressure were to remain the same, but that's not relevant when comparing two, good set-up alternatives. Examples and explanations below, which assume no changes to damping. (For anyone who feels "R-M-R uses too many words", feel free to stop reading at any time and save yourself the keystrokes to complain.)

Example 1: Improving a set-up with a token
Initial: Suspension is mostly ideal, but the suspension reaches a hard bottom-out on infrequent, severe impacts.
Change: Increase support near bottom-out via increased air spring compression ratio.
Final: Essentially the same support in the early part of the travel, slightly more support in the mid-stroke, and significantly more support near bottom-out.
Conclusion: Changed from an inadequate set-up with insufficient support to one with sufficient support.

Example 2: Comparing different set-ups, but both are adequate
A: More linear set-up with higher base spring pressure and lower compression ratio.
B: More progressive set-up with lower base spring pressure and higher compression ratio.
This is the more relevant example, since neither set-up is "wrong". In this example, the use of a higher compression ratio (via additional spacer(s)) decreases mid-stroke support because it should be used in conjunction with decreased base pressure. Both set-ups allow the suspension to work properly across the range of impacts. Set-up A has more mid-stroke support, but feels firmer most of the time, while B feels softer, but dives more.

These examples illustrate what @WestwardHo rightly stated: when comparing set-ups that allow full travel to be used - without hard bottom-outs - mid-stroke support and spring progressivity are inversely related.
  • 3 2
 Gonna start selling 1/64th spacers on my ebay store. Calling them the ewarren edition.
  • 5 3
 I removed all my spacers and even my air spring from my fork!!! Replaced with a vorsprung coil, and will never, ever look back! Done it to two forks, buttery smooth and works well in every temperature!
  • 3 0
 @sebbeaulieu: same here. Fork came with 2, took them both out. The grip2 is butter
  • 5 0
 @R-M-R: "when comparing set-ups that allow full travel to be used - without hard bottom-outs - mid-stroke support and spring progressivity are inversely related"

This is good insight for me, while I've sort of intuitively felt this I guess I hadn't thought about it in such simple terms.

Would you say that for these 2 setups, you are effectively choosing between initial stroke sensitivity and midstroke support? Maybe it isn't that simple.

For my riding i've typically placed a high importance on midstroke support, and have generally preferred the feeling of coils. Maybe just confirmation bias but this gives some reasoning for what I've experienced.
  • 4 0
 @R-M-R: Perfect explanation in comparison ! That's the way it is. Not right or wrong but different.

@sudochuckwalla: those 2-positive-air-chamber concepts try to achieve both and clearly succeed to some extent.
  • 1 0
 @kobold: Yeah that thing is is fire. I had it on other forks and need to get one for my 38
  • 3 0
 @sudochuckwalla: Close, but I would state it slightly differently: the rider is choosing between early (intial + mid) compliance vs. dive resistance.

If we imagine an extremely progressive spring, it's crazy soft ... until it's not. Very plush and comfortable most of the time, yet still resists bottoming out. Sounds great, so far, but the dive will be severe, it's difficult to predict the response to terrain or rider inputs, and the bike will respond slowly and awkwardly to turn initiation and hopping / popping / pumping.

A linear spring builds resistance more quickly and is the opposite of the things described above.

I favour a linear spring with a position-sensitive damper, rather than the traditional set-up of a position-sensitive (progressive) spring with a constant (with respect to position) damper.

@Larsgeorge Thank you. Yes, multi-chamber springs are an excellent way to gain mid-stroke support without the weight of a coil. Unfortunately, if few people understand how tokens work, good luck getting users to properly set up a multi-chamber air spring and multi-rate (velocity and position) damper!
  • 1 0
 Yo- What pressure you running on that Ultimate and how much ya weigh? I've been running 2 tokens, 90psi, 150 lbs...and it feels quite divey off top and mid. That's 15psi higher than recommended...perplexed.
  • 2 0
 @Nwilkes: Assuming it isn't bottoming out hard, there are three solutions to dive with your existing adjustments:

1. Faster rebound damping.
2. More linear spring curve. Remove the tokens and raise the pressure.
3. Add low-speed compression damping.

Points 2 and 3 may make it feel firmer. If so, it's going to be a matter of choosing the lesser of two evils.

Going further, you can replace the stock air spring with a multi-stage system or replace the air spring with a coil.
  • 4 0
 Dang it, a correct to my earlier post.

I wrote:
"For example, it states that a higher compression ratio (more tokens) slightly reduces mid-stroke support."

Should've written:
"For example, it states that a higher compression ratio (more tokens) slightly increases mid-stroke support."
  • 1 0
 @skierdud89: is it cool or seriously uncool to run inserts?
  • 2 0
 @Nwilkes: With no tokens, I'm at ~100psi on a 22 Ultimate with rebound 2 clicks from open. LSC and HSC completely open. I weigh 175. The 2 tokens are the reason it feels so divey off top and mid for you.
  • 1 0
 I fill my air chamber with polystyrene balls, works really well
  • 1 0
 @R-M-R: multi chamber might be too complex for most I agree which is where solutions like Formula Neopos (soft tokens) can come in handy. It won't be as flexible and precise as a proper multi chamber solution but will be a decent bridge between plastic tokens and multi chamber. Not sure why we don't see more of these.
  • 2 0
 @WestwardHo: 100psi??? I have the same fork, weigh the same and with no tokens am at 56 psi. What's your sag at 10%? Your pressure seems crazy high.
  • 1 0
 @steviestokes: I use 1 spacer on my 36 factory grip2.. is that too much then? Is the MRP thingy an upgrade?? Or just something for people with too much money?
  • 1 0
 Same with my 38 Factory Grip2, at 170mm travel I feel happy with just one token, which I think is the standard amount Fox recommends for most users.

Previously I had a 36, which felt a bit more soft in the beginning, but only after adding a MRP Ramp Control - the standard one - the fork went to another level of adjustability. Great stuff! Actually the simpler (or cheaper) your fork is, you will benefit more from adding a Ramp Control, as it fulfills the tasks similar to compression adjustment.
  • 1 0
 @saladdodger: I had it on the ribbon. It does make a difference. But realistically, the grip2, once you've got it to your preference, is an amazing platform.

I'm 69/72kg~, 65psi, 44mm sag (26%) no volume tokens (previously had the factory 2x in there) HSC,LSC all wound off.

Nothing wrong with the 2 volume spacers just wanted to try none, and it's even better. I'm using full travel, for very pumpy, fast, jumpy blues I wind on the LSC. For steep, long l, fast descents (Pleney Steeps for instance) il add about 6-7clicks of HSC to keep the fork up in its travel. But 80% of the time. I'm running both off and then fiddle to remind myself what it's like on or off Smile

I'm overwhelmed by how much support and adjustment the 36 or 38 grip2 has. I've never been a Fox fanboi. Quite the opposite actually. But getting my 36 was the best £600 I've ever spent on a bike
  • 1 0
 @slickwilly1: I have considered doing this, when its just in the high 50s my fork feels harsh; getting sick and tired of trying to determine what pressure to settle on and if i wanna run tokens or not. The bike will ride great in certain terrain with X amount of pressure then it gets all weird in really steep, janky; drops... so the LSC and HSC gets turned up 2-3 clicks just venturing into such terrain to control the fork from feeling too soft blowing through travel and causing confidence to waiver. 22 Lyrik Ultimate
  • 2 0
Fantastic! Thank you for all the word things..
Did anyone mention that changing spacers in a shock means you’ll have to increase/decrease psi to get back to your sag setting?
  • 1 0
 @WestwardHo: Wait, check that. I have the Zeb Ultimate, not the Lyric.
  • 1 0
 @skierdud89: sorry, fat thumbs accidentally downvoted you. I full agree with what you said
  • 35 0
 Recycling those old Beta articles no one saw... still useful information of course.
  • 5 0
 You could tell by the quality of photography.
  • 1 0
 If you had an iPhone at the time, reader view gave you access to outside articles. Shhh, don’t tell anyone
  • 26 1
 Best suspension advice ever: "Try new things. No suspension setup is ever dialed and humans are remarkably good at adjusting and adapting. What you might think is a perfect setup one day might actually feel terrible after playing around with settings, but you’ll never find that out if you don’t change things up."

So many people out there just using baseline settings, never tweaking anything to find out what's best for their specific bike/terrain/riding style/preferred characteristics, etc, etc.
  • 10 4
 So what you are saying is, the future is fully rigid bikes. Who needs suspension when you have arms and legs.
  • 10 0
 I play bass and, like with bikes, get really into the gear. Chasing tones/sounds is an endless knob twiddling and gear buying adventure, which I think is part of the fun, but can also lead to frustration - what sounds great one night, one band, one mix might genuinely sound like crap to you the next day.

Suspension is similar - there is so much feel and perception involved in what is 'best,' and the trail/terrain change the defnintion of 'best' the same way a different room, song, mix band, etc does.

And, just like bass - some people have one bass, plug it into an amp and play. Some riders pump their shocks up, twist some knobs on the first ride, and never touch it again and have a great experience for years. Others are taking notes, using apps, buying stuff, getting tunes, twiddling knobs, installing spacers and are never happy.
  • 7 1
 Guilty as charged. Set it and forget it. Less knobs the better.
  • 1 0
 @mammal : I think we are beginning to see a small paradigm shift with about what we can/should change on our bikes.
We have gone to "the leverage curve has been perfected so precisely that you need to use the exact - fork length/shock stroke/air or coil - this frame was intended to", to "dual crown? oh yeah we took it into account, so the frame is strong enough so just check your A2C to be sure the resulting geometry change fits your need".
Also mulleting bikes (just rear 29>27) sometimes without using offset bushings, or Madonna Raaw and Transition Patrol's options to use 60 OR 65mm stroke shocks.

So in addition to suspension setups, I would argue that you can do whatever you want, just forget preconceived ideas about "what should work" when trying things out.
Few examples : I have gone from 216x63 air to 222x70 coil, still figuring out best sag, and on the front I use pressure to determine basically "ride height", which is more important to me than "I have to use full travel" (in my case 0 spacers). But that leads to another topic, of why I think bikes need more travel in the rear...
  • 2 1
 @a-prince: I agree too, I also have a weird phobia of constant disassembly and re assembly. I feel that it degrades all of the interlocking parts (being that they are commonly aluminum.)

I make adjustments to dial in the performance, but once that is done, I just leave it
  • 16 4
 "Add volume spacers and decrease air pressure to make your suspension more supple while maintaining bottom-out resistance."

This is a common misstatement and incorrect. As you lower pressure (an in turn sag), you put the suspension further into its travel at the dynamic ride height, where the spring curve is getting more progressive. As a result, you have less usable travel and are riding where the spring rate is higher and the suspension becomes firmer. People will end up in a cycle of dropping pressure and adding spacers to only get an ever harsher ride. When in doubt, remove spacers and up pressure.

The author conflates the purposes of the spring and the damper, they serve separate functions and need to be treated separately. The spring is used to set the proper rate and ride height. With an air spring, you set pressure for proper feel in the first 1/2 of the travel, volume spacers are used to control the ramp up and bottom out (which crosses over into high speed compression dampening). If once you set the initial spring rate, you are bottoming, add volume spacers. If you are not getting full travel, remove them. Always start with no spacers.
  • 3 5
 I think you are partly wrong here. The author isn't just saying to decrease pressure, he also saying to add tokens. Adding tokens decreases air volume so you have to decrease pressure to get the same sag. Therefore you aren't going to necessarily change ride height, you can still achieve your original sag.
  • 5 0
 @Dogl0rd: Assuming you are maintaining the same sag, when you add spacers, you increase the spring rate, this does not lead to a plusher ride, it leads to a firmer ride, as the spring rate will be higher from the sag point, so for any given compressive force you will use less travel.
  • 1 0
 Interesting. Do you feel like there is a general rule for PSI/token. I feel like i fall in this category on my Lyrik Ultimate as i am running 2 tokens and for sure under the recommended pressure. I haven't felt great about my settings. I am about 190 geared up and ride pretty hard. I always have a difficult time determining if its just the end of a long season taking its toll on my body or if my hands and wrists are feeling the harshness of what should be a plush fork!
  • 1 0
 @carym: for any given force? I would still imagine it's softer at the top because the pressure is lower. I don't know the math though so I could easily have got it wrong.
  • 4 0
 I have 3 bikes with Fox forks. 34/36 & a 38. And one bike with a Manitou Mezzer Pro.

No matter what I do to the Fox 34/36 Forks, they pretty much feel like crap off the top. Only the 38 feels decent. I've followed all of Fox recommendations and tried every combo of tokens, no tokens, sag, compression/rebound etc.

I recently changed to a Mezzer Pro on my Levo and in 1 ride had it dialed and feeling incredible and all I did was use their setup guide and used the recommendations for my weight (180 lbs).
  • 2 0
 Not sure I agree. For years I would run 20psi or more above manufacturers recommended pressure for my weight (resulting in less sag). It was the only way to prevent harsh bottom outs, but the initial travel was so hard it was horrendous on slower speed bumps and tech. Now, I run the recommended pressure with volume reducers, your initial travel is smooth and forgiving with the added benefit of progression that prevents bottom out (resulting in the correct sag). This makes the suspension ride better over more conditions.

Different strokes for different folks.
  • 1 1
 @Dogl0rd: You don’t ride with no sag, you ride at sag. The spring rate at that point is what determines the feel.
  • 2 1
 @PRCVT: When in doubt, less volume spacers and more pressure. The good news is it is easy to experiment. There is no rule for psi v tokens. A more aggressive rider will need more ramp up and high speed compression dampening then a less aggressive rider of the same weight. The faster the rider, the more energy they put into the bike.
  • 5 1
 @philly758: So what you are saying is that because you are a stronger than average rider, you need more compression dampening than most. As your fork did not have the ability to increase the high speed compression, you had to resort to a higher spring rate, so high, that it compromised the initial travel.

You did exactly what you are supposed to, set your initial spring rate to where it is correct, use volume spacers to control the bottoming. The problem arises where people are dropping pressure and adding volume spacers searching for plushness. All they are doing is putting themselves in the steep part of the spring curve, leading to harshness. Then they drop the pressure further, add more tokens and make the problem worse.
  • 3 0
 @carters75: agreed, I'm back on a Rockshox fork after 3 Mezzer Pros and I can't for the life of me find settings to get small bump compliance, mid-stroke support, and bottom-out resistance. I can dial things for about 1/2 of what I want but getting all 3 is not happening. If I want the fork to feel plush off the top I need low pressure and no amounts of tokens will keep it from diving on any significant hit. If I set it up for solid mid stroke support it feels harsh as hell on fast small hits and in general completely dead.
I can pull a Mezzer Pro out of the box and get it dialed in 1 ride. I play with LSC when I change the style of riding I do and that's it.
  • 1 1
 @Boissal: It is a wonderful thing to have something that just works. My son is on a Mezzer now after 1 year of trying to get a Fox 36 Factory to work well. Even with a Luftkappe, it still was not great. Decent, but dead and no amount of adjusting would make it feel great.
  • 2 0
 More tokens, less pressure and same sag? Yes, that should make you reach the ramp up earlier in the travel. That's what people mean with midstroke support, right?
To me, tokens are the way to steer where in the travel I want that ramp up to build up.
  • 16 1
 I enjoyed the 16yr old Mike Levy video the most
  • 4 0
 It would have been rad if the Tech Tuesdays had consistent (even if infrequent) over the years so we could slowly watch his tattoos accumulate.
  • 8 0
 Spacers suck. Manitou IRT (or any other dual air chamber) for the win. Change my mind.
  • 1 0
 I have to remember 2 big numbers (pressures) instead of 1 big number (pressure) and 1 little number (spacers).
  • 2 0
 100% this. I really miss my Rockshox Reba dual air forks - I had 3 different versions. I could always dial those things in precisely, way better than I can with spacers in my two current Fox forks.
  • 2 0
 @Marquis: yeah, unfortunately things are built for simple minds these days. Everything has to be simple to set up up, with products aiming at easily achieving acceptable performance instead of putting in a little effort to get great performance. Yes, my Fox 34 GRIP is easy to set up, but it can't hold a candle to my 'complicated' Mattoc Pro. Things are getting a bit better lately though, with some forks offering good setup options. Unfortunately, most popular forks and shocks still seem to stick with simple 'bottomless tokens' that prevent complaints from people not understanding the workings of suspension and also provides the seller with extra income. Using them improved both my Fox fork and shock, but I can't say the end result has me completely satisfied.
  • 1 0
 @justinfoil: store them on your phone. At least it'll give you great performance after a little trial and error.
  • 1 0
 How about both? (kinda) MRP Ribbon Air forks uses dual air chambers AND the MRP ramp control for a wide range of ramp adjustment on the go.
  • 1 0
 @ripridesbikes: irt is something different than ramp Control so can't compare them, however i strongly stand behind irt performance.
  • 1 0
 @Marquis: DualAir is not the same as IRT or tokens. DualAir doesn't have anything to do with changing the air chamber sizes. DualAir is about individually setting positive and negative pressures, as opposed to using a coil spring negative (old Fox and others) or a self-equalizing negative spring (pretty much everything nowadays, with a couple exceptions). DualAir can help you adjust the off-the-top, early stroke, feel, and that's pretty much it, the exact opposite of tokens.
  • 2 0
 @Mac1987: "Yes, my Fox 34 GRIP is easy to set up,"

That's the thing, it's not "easy to set up": it just has limited external adjustments, which is very much not the same. Jordi even mentioned it on the Vital podcast a couple weeks ago: a fork or shock with minimal external adjustments is much harder to get dialed because it relies on everything internally being pretty close to perfect already. More adjustments, while easier to screw up, is also the only way to make is possible to tweak without opening it up. Having minimal external adjustments isn't "set and forget", it's "forget about setting up".
  • 1 0
 @justinfoil: Adjusting off-the-top, early stroke, and feel by removing all the air, the top cap and then trying more or less tokens are exactly what I meant. Versus adding or removing a little air from top or bottom with dual air.
  • 1 0
 @justinfoil: Right. That's why dual air + Ramp control make a great pairing.
  • 1 0
 @ripridesbikes: the Ribbon's dual chambers aren't dual like IRT's dual positive chambers. It's dual like dual-air where the negative spring is not self-equalizing. But yeah, that plus ramp control sure gives a lot of spring tuning options without even getting into the damper side.
  • 4 0
 TruTune? …very interested in trying the TruTune activated carbon volume INCREASER… supposedly gives your fork a more linear feel, which I think would make my Fox 36 match up well with my Fox DHX2 Factory w/ Sprindex. Anyone tried the TruTune? Any reviews?
  • 1 0
 Just ordered one for my Fox 38 but as they are 180mm they are only take 4 spacers so guys at Trutune are working on one to fit and should be with me in a few weeks
  • 6 0
 Installed an MRP Ramp Control. No more cracking the fork open to replace bits of plastic.
  • 7 0
 Mrp is a lovely company
  • 1 0
 @Tigergoosebumps: Earlier this year I built up a steel hardtail with a 140mm MRP Ribbon Air fork (has the ramp control installed from the factory)
I friggin LOVE that fork. Initial plushness? Check. Enough bottom out resistance to hold up to my fat ass over cooking a drop and landing flat? Check. Enough mid-stroke support for pushing into corners and heavy g-outs? Check.
  • 1 0
 @Tigergoosebumps: lmao there stuff is the worst
  • 1 0
 @ripridesbikes: only issue I found was the rediculous amount of Bushing play. So bad that you could feel it whilst riding.
  • 1 0
 I have one on one of my bikes. I don’t ever really mess with it and it’s kind of hard to know/ remember how many clicks equal how many spacers. I think I’d rather just use spacers and figure it out once. I don’t ever change my spacers for conditions. Maybe I should. I will increase pressure for bike park jumps, but not spacers.
  • 1 0
 @steviestokes: I haven't had that problem yet, only on season on it so far though. That is all the motivation I needed to keep up on my services though haha. Thanks for the heads up!
  • 1 0
 @txcx166: I ride my bike in all kinds of places and terrain so it makes a bigger difference for me to be able to adjust on the go as needed. I usually have it set to about 8 clicks (+) for general trail riding and I bump that up near max when heavy hits are on the menu (jump lines and drops). Such a nice option to have if you do actually have a use for it.
  • 3 0
 My riding budies all follow the traditional " never set and forget" approach. Whatever the kid at the bike shop let them roll out with is what they show up at the trail with. Forget volume spacers, many don't even know what all the nobs on the fork/shock do or how changing sag impacts the ride.

Nice to have TT back!
  • 4 0
 Put a Runt in my Lyrik a while back, haven't messed with spacers in a while.
Like MRP Ramp Control, just play with high and low air to dial things in. Love it
  • 4 2
 If your fork has a completely seperate positive air spring (ie, not a Rockshox Solo Air with a self-adjusting negative chamber) you can effectively decrease the chamber volume by adding oil to it. Simply pull the valve core when its deflated and use a syringe to add some fork oil to the chamber, then replace the valve core and re-inflate.
  • 1 0
 Yep, this is what I've always done too. Just add more lubrication oil to the air chamber. Never used plastic pucks. May only be slightly harder to keep consistent as over time oil will seep past the piston.
  • 8 1
 On many forks, the oil will slowly migrate to the negative chamber as it cycles and will slowly reduce the volume on your negative eventually leading to loss of small bump compliance and even a harsh top out.
  • 7 10
 @nastynate711: that's why he said "if your fork has separate chambers", was this so hard to understand?
  • 2 2
 @nastynate711: Reading impaired are we ? I specifically explained this only works on forks with seperate positive air spring chambers, and NOT forks which have self-adjusting negative air spring chambers (such as Rockshox SoloAir forks).
  • 2 2
 This literally only works for DVO forks. Please don’t do this on anything else. That’s what volume spacers are for. This will destroy the neg air spring @SixxerBikes:
  • 1 3
 @freeridejerk888: No... it works on a LOT of different forks.Not everyone uses a fork from a manufacturer who switched to self-equalizing negative air chambers. Those fork manufacturers which adopted them did so as a cost cutting measure while selling it to consumers as easing their fork setup (at the cost of inferior performance, which they convenient leave out of the advertising). Also not everyone replaces perfectly good working forks for newer model year versions simply because they're the latest shiny new thing. Rockshox didn't eliminate the last of their Dual Air models until three years ago for example.
  • 1 0
 Aside from my forks with the Flight Control travel adjustment forks (which adjust travel on the fly by readjusting positive and negative air chambers) and obviously the Odur (which is coil sprung), my Magura forks have just a single positive air chamber and I've been adding more oil to the air chamber well before any manufacturer came with plastic pucks in the air chamber. I felt less need for this on their later forks as they gradually reduced the air chamber volume (by using longer air piston rods). But it could still be done on my TS8 fork.

Haven't tried this, but can't you also just dump excess grease in the air chamber of a rear shock?
  • 1 0
 @lkubica: Oh, I understood it just fine. Even on forks with separate chambers the oil will slowly migrate. When further into the travel, the negative chamber is under vacuum while the positive increases in pressure and after thousands of cycles the oil will slowly leak past the main piston and into the negative chamber, thus reducing its volume and creating undesirable riding characteristics. This would take many hours of riding, but would happen over time, whereas a fork with an equalizer port would do this in about 5 minutes of riding. Adding oil as a volume spacer was ok on old Fox forks that had a coil spring negative, but those were different and used a u-cup seal on the main piston.
  • 1 0
 @deeeight: Not at all. Even on forks with separate chambers the oil will slowly migrate. When further into the travel, the negative chamber is under vacuum while the positive increases in pressure and after thousands of cycles the oil will slowly leak past the main piston and into the negative chamber, thus reducing its volume and creating undesirable riding characteristics. This would take many hours of riding, but would happen over time, whereas a for with an equalizer port would do the same in about 5 minutes of riding. Adding oil as a volume spacer was ok on old Fox forks that had a coil spring negative, but those were different and used a u-cup seal on the main piston. I’ve been working on suspension for over a decade, I might know something.
  • 1 0
 @nastynate711: coughthreedecadescough
  • 5 0
 "Some other shocks, like a Fox Float X2,(...) slide open, not unscrew"
Did you mean "crack open"?
  • 2 0
 Take one day and setup your suspension. Don’t *try* to ride. Just ride. Tweak a little. Ride. A full day, on the same day.

Then. A week later when your bike feels weird at the same trails. ITS YOU. Not the bike. You already spent the time setting up.
  • 2 0
 "Linear – A spring curve that keeps a constant spring rate through travel"

Noting that constant spring rate does not mean constant spring force. The spring force increases with displacement even with the most perfectly linear spring rate.
  • 2 0
 Random biker: linear leverage curves are bad. You need the rear shock to make up for the lack of progressivity and can't run coil.

Also random biker: I only buy telescopic forks! They totally aren't as linear as it gets and coils definitely don't work in them!
  • 1 0
 Question. Does anyone make a the spring conversions, say for a 36, but it has progressiveness built in? I ask because I love progressive set ups and coil shocks. CaneCreek and other companies make coils that are progressive and I personally find it to be really nice. Id like to have my fork feeling the same positives if possible.
  • 1 0
 Vorsprung's Secus tries to get the best of both worlds there with more supple and linear initial travel and still some ramp up.
  • 1 0
 @emarquar: Ive looked at that. May be the best route. I just found out PUSH Industries has a system in regards to a spring set up for progressiveness. No idea how well it performs though.
  • 1 0
 @chillrider199: I have the push coil setup in my 36. I like it. They use the air bottom out thing for the last 1/3 of travel, which works well for me.
  • 1 0
 Vorsprung’s smash pot has a hydraulic bottom out control. It works really well and makes the coil much more progressive
  • 1 0
 @olafthemoose: Yup, it's a great system - you can adjust how much ramp up you want, and it only acts in the last 30% (I think) of the travel) so doesn't affect the plushness or mid stroke. I've found it to be an excellent upgrade.
  • 2 0
 the bottom out control of the z1 has been surprisingly good. simple fork and works amazing. Not nearly fancy enough for most modern mtbers which is a shame, its awesome.
  • 1 0
 @chillrider199: the vorsprung option is better. I’ve taken both apart and the vorsprung is more elegant, the damper vs the pneumatic spring seems to work better. The vorsprung spring engages very smoothly while the push product essentially just clunks into the second spring 2/3rds of the way into the travel. You can feel and hear it
  • 3 2
 Awesome article, I appreciate the very in depth approach! A little disappointed that Negative air chamber volume wasn't addressed (Like a Meg Neg) and how more or less bands translates to beginning stroke, and therefore overall spring progressivity. I hear a lot of misinformation and confusion/backwards thinking about this.

Correct me if I am wrong, but to my understanding, Negative Air Chamber helps to suck the shock into its initial stroke. A higher Negative air chamber volume (ie Less Meg Neg Bands) will require a higher pressure to achieve the same sag, and thus will further increase bottom out resistance, but will have less midstroke support than the same pressure with no MegNeg... I think.. So a Shock Full of Volume Spacers, with a MegNeg and 0 negative bands is the most progressive air spring you can create. From here, one way to increase midstroke support would be to add negative bands. Again, feel free to add or correct me if you confidently know more about the topic than I do, I think I have a good grasp on it, but i don't want to spread more misunderstanding. Also, thanks for that 12 year old video of awkward Levy.
  • 1 0
 Wonder sometimes if suspension set ups should be treated as an incremental training tool, almost like riding with faster and faster people. Set something you find slightly harder to ride, force yourself to learn to ride it, move up another notch in your settings. A lot is said about tuning suspension for comfort and feel, but what about tuning it to learn how the faster/better half lives? Understand this sort of thing to be prevalent in DH, but couldn't it benefit the everyday rider too?
  • 5 0
 You have to ride pretty fast to get the most out of a setup like the DH guys use. My theory is that slower riders like very progressive suspension because it’s super soft off the top and passes the parking lot test with flying colors, but they’re not riding fast enough to care about the “wall of progression.” If you’re riding fast, you need more damping and more spring support. The pro DH guys ride high pressure AND lots of spacers.
  • 1 1
 @babathehutt: so pros run less sag and with corresponding high BB heights? I find this hard to believe.
There a many ways to get suspension set up for heavy hitters, but using all the pressure, all the spacers, and all the damping possible can't be "the solution".
But this is just my unchecked opinion. Could you share examples proving your point?
  • 3 0
 @Uuno: plenty of DH bikes run 20% sag in the rear and the forks aren’t tuned for sag, rather for support
  • 2 0
 That’s not a thing. You want your suspension setup for how you ride. Riding an overly stiff suspension won’t make you faster. I consider a proper setup to include proper bottom out resistance. Hard bottom outs will hold you back. From my Moto days. You should almost bottom out once per lap if your suspension is setup right. You want to use your travel. A mega stiff ride doesn’t make you a bad ass.
  • 1 0
 @txcx166: it’s not the stiff setup that makes you fast, it’s the fact that you are going fast that necessitates stiff suspension because the forces are higher than you imagine. And that means that many riders stuff their suspension with the maximum number of spacers and run quite a bit of damping. I’ve heard plenty of racers talk about the uncomfortably stiff race setup and that when they practice they use softer suspension settings for comfort. I’m not making it up, but I’m not a racer and I’m repeating what they said
  • 1 0
 Seems a little incomplete without mention of what the negative chamber does. Sure, its much harder to alter the volume of the neg chamber without using a Vorspung Luftkappe or Secus but can provide much more tangible effects to air spring curve than any amount of positive chamber volume reducers. An inappropriately sized or pressured neg chamber can create some pretty severe harshness, which will often lead people to drop their fork pressure, causing the fork to sit deeper into its travel at a static load (sag), which further degrades the utilization of the neg chamber, making the fork even harsher during the initial stroke. Whereas with volume spacers, about all they do is affect how harsh you bottom out.
  • 1 0
 I seem to prefer close to linear suspension with a bit of ramp in the last bit of travel. Theoretically, linear suspension should absorb impacts the most efficiently across all amplitudes, while the end ramp provides a cushion to prevent harsh bottom outs. Additionally in the case of the fork I reserve 5-10mm of super firm travel for the 'OH SHIT' moments.
  • 1 0
 "Want more mid-stroke support? You can either bump up pressure or decrease volume (both of which affect one end of the spring curve as well as the mid-stroke)."

But only one of those (pressure) also effects early-stroke, and the other one (volume) effects end-stroke much much more.
  • 4 0
 Great article, clearly written.
  • 3 0
 Palmer?! Is that you?!Three typos if Robin's keeping you against your will!
  • 5 1
 Volume reducers = Harshness increasers
  • 3 1
 wondering if tire inserts are the equivalent of this
  • 1 0
 oh fantastic, I was in fact hoping that there was a way to sum up this complex subject with just one take away, I'll also just forget what the whole article just said cheers!
  • 3 0
 @SixxerBikes: Not necessarily. The difference is due to the consequence of bottoming out.

Fork or shock: Not much.
Tire: Probably a flat, maybe a damaged rim.

As such, most people inflate their tires firmly enough to maintain a margin of safety, i.e. to prevent "getting full travel" out of the tire. Inserts can cushion the last part of the "travel" enough to prevent damage at "bottom out", allowing users to reduce tire pressure and allow more compression, more often. Downsides are weight, hassle, and cost.
  • 1 1
 ..and reducing tire volume that adds to the ramp-up effect. hmmmmmm
  • 2 0
 I mean that's all well and good, but how does anyone adjust the new SID fork where the ramp up is too progressive without any volume spacers installed?
  • 1 1
 Wait for the bushings to wear and you'll get some additional "travel" to smooth things out.

But seriously, that's a bummer. In the pursuit of less weight, designers often sacrifice things that matter more than weight.
  • 1 0
 Shoutout to Kaz for helping my tiny peanut brain understand suspension a little better! Can’t seem to get my Spire suspension just right and some nugs from this might help get me just a bit closer.
  • 3 0
 Great article!! Thank you
  • 1 1
 Wish I had a way to save this article for next spring! It's about ski season for me now, but next spring I'll be thinking "where was that article on suspension set up that was explained so well?" Too long to print.
  • 3 0
 Put the link in your calendar app. Or just bookmark it?
  • 2 0
 @barp: no, there is no way.
  • 1 0
 @barp: Thanks for the suggestion. I found that I could print to a PDF without the comments section so I was able to save the article on my HD.
  • 4 1
 coil for life... with 26 wheels
  • 1 0
 I discovered the Pinkbike website through the Tech Tuesday articles, great to see them back. My first thoughts back then was that the presenter looked a bit funny.
  • 1 0
 "we mean that the spring curve of an air spring increases in rate the farther you move into travel."

How does a "curve" "increase"?
  • 2 0
 Really think Manitou's Dorado air spring would have been worth comparing in this.
  • 1 0
 Do we also want to consider activated carbon in the mix? Volume increaser not reducer - just saying
  • 1 0
 Yeah, and Formula Neopos (closed cell foam) or Deaneasy (open cell foam)? The article is long enough already.
  • 3 0
 Oops, reading my comment it came across a bit rude. Didn't mean to. I added those two options in the mix, then actually said to myself that the article would become way too long if they'd go in depth with those options as well. Would be a worthy addition to a future article, probably.
  • 3 0
 do you even space?
  • 2 0
 A very long and round-about explanation of Boyle’s Law.
  • 2 0
 Dual Positive Chambers >>> Volume Spacers
  • 2 0
 Bring back Vorsprung techTuesdays
  • 3 0
 yep, best advice Steve ever gave me while waiting in line at Queestown bike park was cut off the sag O-ring.

Sag is a reference point, stop worrying about how much travel you use. Spring rate keeps the bike up, set your ride height via spring rate, adjust as required after the fact.

I've come to the realisation on modern day forks with minimal stiction (ie Fox 3Cool that more pressure/less tokens (or zero) is the go. We are all wanting to replicate a coil fork, this is how you do it.
  • 2 0
 @Brasher: Yep, I also think 3-spring chambers as found on Ohlins and a few others will be the future in replicating an almost perfect replica of a linear coil spring
  • 1 0
 @spuddo: they sure are! I have a dorado with IRT and love that fork.
Also running a marz 55 ATA on my hardtail (Marzocchi, the O.G. 3 chamber air spring)
And My Shiv-air I build a few years ago is also running an ATA air cartridge!

(My ATA carts have all the mods, xring seals, increased PAR volume, coil spring in the negative chamber to lower breakaway force.)
  • 5 5
 DVO does away with all of this by reverse engineering how a fork is supposed to properly work
  • 1 0
 What’s going on with the pencil?
  • 1 0
 Just get a Vorsprung Smashpot, job done
  • 1 1
 Tyler McComb needs another bathroom break
  • 1 0
 The dc onyx has spacers.
  • 1 1
 travel reduction spacers, yeah
  • 1 0
 @SixxerBikes: no air spring spacers
  • 1 1
 3 tokens on the Zeb...and I'll keep it that way

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