Part Names & Abbreviations For Beginners

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Part Names & Abbreviations For Beginners
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Posted: Aug 11, 2010 at 11:10 Quote
If you're new to mountain biking or Road Biking here is all the information you need.

Abbreviations:

BB: Bottom Bracket.

MTB: Mountain Biking.

SS: Can mean two things: Single Speed (when referring to gears) or Slope Style (when referring to riding discipline)

FGFS: Fixed Gear Freestyle.

Fixed Gear: A gear which is locked into place, meaning you have to pedal continuously.

Free Coast: A gear which is 'free to coast on 99% of normal bikes where you don't have to pedal continuously.

FR: Free Ride.

DJ: Dirt Jumping.

AM: All Mountain.

DH: Downhill.

XC: Cross Country.

CX: Cyclocross

LBS: Local Bike Shop.

Brief Definitions:

Air - The Space between the tires and the ground.
Babyheads - Roundish rocks usually found on DH courses
Bail - To abandon your bike at anytime while doing a trick
Beartrap - When your foot slips off your pedal and slams into your shin
Bomb - To ride with recklessness and disregard to safety
Brain Bucket - A helmet
Bunny Hop - To lift both wheels at the same time
Dab - Too put your foot down to catch your balence
Death Cookies - See Babyheads
Dialed - Can refer to the set up of your bike or used to describe tricks
Endo - Too Balance on your front tire
Epic - A ride that must last for at least six hours and include at least three mechanicals
Faceplant - Hitting the ground face first
Front Wheelie - See endo
Gnarl - Usually used to describe a section of trail
Gnarly - Usually used to describe a crash or bail
Gravity Check - A crash or fall
Hard Tail - A bike with no rear suspension
Jump - Consists of a take off and a landing
Lid - See brain bucket
Line - A desired path
Nose Manual - See endo
Nose Wheelie - See endo

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A

Air valve: What you hook the air pump up to to inflate the inner tube, the air valve is connected to the tube. There are to variations of these, the presta valve, and the schrader valve.

or...


Air valve can also mean the air valves on air shocks/forks, or if it's on an air fork it replaces the rebound cap which is on a spring fork.

B

Bottom Bracket: Also nicknamed BB; The bearings, bearing cups and axel that carry the chainset.


C

Cassette: A set of 7,8,9 or 10 sprockets which mount onto a freehub body. A freewheel mechanism fits inside the freehub body.

Caliper: The part of a disc brake that holds the pads. In hydraulic brakes it also has the master and slave piston inside. It is what forces that pads onto the rotor.

Chainring: The toothed part of the chainset which engages with the chain. Usually removable.

Chain Stays: The small diameter tube that runs between the bottom bracket and the drop out. It is usually ovalised near the bottom bracket but some modern frames use square section tubes. May be curved or S-shaped.

Crankarms: Long arms that carry the pedals and transmit the riders energy to the chainring.


D

Downtube: Usually the largest diameter part of the frame. Runs from the head tube to the bottom bracket.

F

Front Deraileur: Labled 'Front Der' on the picture; Swaps the chain from one chainring to another. Two chainrings multiplies the number of gears by two. Three chainrings multiplies the number by three.

H

Headset: The top and bottom bearings pressed into the head tube to support the forks and allow them to steer. The bottom bearing is subject to very heavy impact loads, so the races eventually become indented.

Head Tube: The shortest frame tube. Fits between the top and down tubes. Can be almost non-existent on very small frames.

Hub: Centre part of the a wheel, the spokes are laced the it, which ties the whole wheel together, it is also the part of the wheel that connects it to the frame of the bike itself. there are different spacing sizes, which means how wide the hub is. it is usually 135 or 150. there are also different axle sized, the axle is what goes through the hub that connects it to the frame, the axle sizes are usually 10, 12, or 15mm.

L

Lowers: Lower part of the fork that contain the oil, they are what the stanchions slide into when the fork compresses. They also hold the front wheel.

P

Piggy Back: The oil resevoir on modern shocks. it is called piggy back because it literately "piggy backs" the shock itself, as opposed to it being connected to the shock by oil line & to increase the amount of oil and move the damping circuits.

R

Rear Derailleur: Also known as Rear Der on the picture, also known as Rear Mech or Mechanism.

Rear Shock:The rear suspension on a full suspension bike, it adsorbs the bumps.

Rotor:The disc of metal that bolts onto the wheel, it is what the pads of a discs brake clamp on to to create friction.
Not all rotors are bolt on though well they are but in a different way,6 bolt use as it says 6 bolts to hold the the rotor on,center lock as used by shimano and dt-swiss uses splines to hold the rotor in place instead of using 6 bolts to take all of the stress,and to hold it on it uses a one large bolt which is the same as a cassette lock ring as found on cassettes.

S

Seat Post: Tube that fits into the seat tube and supports the saddle.

Seat Stay: The small-diameter tube that runs between the seat lug and the drop out. Key-hole stays are S-curved for resilience.

Seat Tube: The large-diameter frame tube which supports the saddle and bottom bracket.

Spoke: Round or flat wire that connects the hub to the rim.

Stanchion: The part of the forks that slide into the lowers, these are what provide the travel. They usually hold the dampers and springs/ air chambers inside them.

Stem: Connects to the steerer tube, supports the handlebars. Various lengths are available to suit the build of the rider.

STI: Combined brake and gear levers for sports and racing bikes, made by Shimano.

Suspension Forks: Forks that allow the front wheel to move up and down to absorb bumps. Usually controlled by some sort of spring and gas or fluid damper mechanism to minimise bounce and rebound.

T

Top Tube: The tube joining the seat tube to the head tube. It is usually horizontal but compact road frames and most MTB's have a sloping top tube. The top tube length is one of the most important sizes.

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The Anatomy Of A Mountain Bike

There’s a lot of terminology to learn if you’re a mountain biking enthusiast. These enthusiasts have a language all their own, what with “face plants, boing-boing, drillium and wild pig.”
However, there is also biking terminology that stays the same, regardless of the age of the user, and that’s the terms used for individual parts of the bike. And its important to know these as well.

1. Bottom bracket – A circular hole in the bottom frame of the bike, used to attach the crankset.

2. Brake cable – The cable that connects the brake lever to the brake mechanism.

3. Brake lever – Lever on the handlebar which activates the brakes. The left lever controls the front brake, the right lever controls the rear brake.
4. Chain – The set of circular metal links which transfers power from the chain ring to the cogs. There are two types of bicycle chains: bushing and bushingless.

5. Chainring – Part of the crankset. A sprocket or toothed wheel which attaches to the crank and holds the chain. Bikes can have from two to three chainrings.

6. Crank – Part of the crankset. The lever or “arm” which connects the pedal to the bottom bracket.

7. Derailleur – The device which moves the chain from one chainring to another inorder to shift gears.

8. Down tube – Part of the frame. The tube which runs diagonally from the head tube (supporting the handlebars) to the bottom bracket. Above this is the top tube, which runs from the head tube to the seat.

9. Front shock – A suspension system on the front fork which allows the bike to absorb shocks without transmitting them to the rider.

10. Handlebar – The horizontal bar located at the front of the bike which is used to steer, and which will contain the shifters and break levers and any other items a cyclist wishes to have within easy reach.

11. Headset – The device which houses the bearings that enables the handlebars and front wheel to rotate on the frame of a bike. There are two types of headset, the threaded and the threadless.

12. Hub – The center part of the bicycle wheel, consisting of an axle and ball bearings to allow the wheel to move easily. In addition, the spokes radiate out from the hub to the bicycle rim.

13. Idler pulley- A pulley takes up slack in the chain in order to keep it tight at all times.

14. Nipple – Small threaded cylinders in the bicycle rim which secure a spoke to the rim.

15. Pedal – A short metal bar on which to put your foot, in order to propel the bicyle. The pedal is attached to the crank. Pedals can be simple or come attached with clips in which to put your shoes to increase leverage.

16. Rear shock – On a dual suspension bike, the device that absorbs shocks from the rear tire.

17. Rim – The metal ring to which the bicycle tire is fitted, and to which the brakes apply their force. The interior of the rim holds the spokes which give strength to the tire.

18. Saddle – Also called the seat. Something to sit on!

19. Seat post – The tubular support to which the saddle is connected. This tube is then placed into the seat tube, and can be raised or lowered depending on the rider.

20. Skewer – A metal rod that attaches the wheel to the frame of the bicycle. On one end is a nut to keep the skewer secure, on the other is the release mechanism, which is secured either by a “quick release” toggle, or with bolts.

21. Spindle – Part of the bottom bracket. The free rotating axle to which the crank arms attach.

22. Spokes – The thick wires that join the hub to the rim. The amount of spokes determine how strong the tire will be. Spokes can also be arranged in different patterns, which affect twisting and brake forces.

23. Stem – The metal piece that attaches the handlebar to the steering tube.

24. Wheel hub – See hub.

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10 Minute Safety Check:

1 Front Wheel:

-Quick Release or wheel nuts loose.
-Hub Bearings loose or binding.
-Spokes loose, broken or missing.
-Rim out of true.
-Rim braking surface dangerously worn or damaged.
-Tyre under-inflated, punctured, worn or cracked,damaged side wall, inner tube not straight.

2 Forks.
-Damaged or incorrect orientation.Oil leaks, correct air pressure, scratches on stanchions, play in shock/frame bushings.


3 Front Brake.
-Does not lock wheel (cable adjustment or glazed pads)
-Pads not aligned with rim.
-Brakes rubbing.
-Pads worn or missing.
-Cable insecurely clamped.
-Cable Problems (friction,frayed,corroded or broken)
-Juddering (loose caliper or disc)

4 Headset.
-Bearings loose, tight or notchy.

5 Stem
-Expander bolt or clamp bolts insufficiently tight.
-Raised past limit mark.

6 Handlebars
-Not firmly clamped in stem
-Not aligned with front wheel.
-End plugs missing.
-Brake or gear levers not firmly attached.

7 Frame.
-Crash damaged,showing dents, ripples or cracks.

8 Bottom Bracket.
-Bearings loose or seized.

9 Cranks
-Loose on bottom bracket axel.
-Chainrings bent or damaged.

10 Pedals.
-Bearings loose or seized.
-Cage damaged or missing.

11 Front gears.
-Not indexed.
-Limit Screws set wrong.
-Not shifting (defective cable, defective components)

12 Seatpost.
-Raised past limit mark.
-Not securley clamped.

13 Saddle.
-Not straight,level or secure.

14 Rear wheel,brake and tyre.
-7 checks on rear brake, as front brake.
-6 checks on rear wheel as front wheel.

15 Rear Gears
-Not indexed
-Limit screws set wrong.
-Defective or incompatible components.
-Cable Friction.
-Bent Gear Hanger.
-Gears jumping (worn components, stiff link)

16 Finally.
-Check for unsafe accessories like mudguards, racks, locks, chainguards or kickstands. Also a general check of all bolts.

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Hydraulic vs Mechanical Brakes:
Mechanical brakes use a cable that is connected to the brake lever to press the pads to the rotor. A hydraulic brake uses oil chambers connected by the oil line. It uses Pascal's principle. Hydraulic brakes are harder to maintain for beginner's because you have to bleed them every so often (air gets in the oil and reduces the power of the brakes). they are also a lot more expensive. a good set of hyro brakes can run up to 600 dollars. however they are much stronger. mechanical brakes only use a cable that tensions and presses the pads together. they are not as powerful, but they are generally maintenance free except for changing the pads and reaplacing the cable every season or so. they are pretty cheap though compaired to hydro brakes
_________________________________________________________________________________________
FRAME SIZING

MOUNTAIN BIKES: There should be a minimum of 3 inches clearance over the Top Tube when you stand flat footed on the ground.

ROAD BIKES: There should be a minimum of 1 inch clearance over the Top Tube when you stand flat footed on the ground. However, some frames follow the compact design with a sloping Top Tube. These should be between 2 inches and 3 inches of clearance.
Alternatively, stand with your back to a wall, with your feet about 6 inches apart. Get a book and press one side against the wall, while the other presses up into the crotch.
Measure from the back of the book to the ground and multiply by 0.66.
This gives you the size of the frame that you need.
However, bikes have a 1 inch longer Top Tube for every 2 inch increase in frame size.
So if you've got unusually long arms or a long trunk it's a good idea to go for the next frame size up.
But if you've got unusually long legs, go for a shorter frame and make up for it with a long seat post, if necessary.
Alternatively, you'll find the following is pretty accurate.

FRAME SIZE----FRAME SIZE IN CM----INSIDE LEG

15 inches--------------38cm---------------------------24-29in

16 inches-------------41cm---------------------------25-30in

17 inches-------------43cm---------------------------26-31in

18 inches-------------46cm---------------------------27-32in

19 inches------------49cm---------------------------28-33in

20 inches------------51cm----------------------------29-34in

21 inches------------54cm---------------------------30-35in

22 inches------------56cm---------------------------31-36in

23 inches------------59cm---------------------------32-37in

TYRE PRESSURE
Heavier riders will need higher pressures.

Racer and Hybrid
Tyre Width------Max Pressure
---------------------Bar---------psi
23mm---------------9.5 ---------140

25mm---------------9------------130

28mm---------------8------------120

32mm---------------7------------100

Mountain/City/Comfort

1.50in/37mm----------6------------90

1.75in/45mm---------5.2------------75

2.00in/51mm---------4.3------------60

2.30in/58mm---------3.35------------56



_________________________________________________________________________________________


For all information on bike parts go to:

sheldonbrown.com


_________________________________________________________________________________________


When riding it is always IMPORTANT to wear a helmet, the following picture show's the right way to wear a helmet.

Make sure you buy a well fitting helmet. If the fit is right, the helmet will sit quite low on your brow but high enough to allow unobstructed vision when your're looking upwards or sideways.


The straps must fit naturally either side of the ears. If they don't, go for a different helmet. The adjusters should sit below the ear lobes and the buckle tucks under the chin.

Some helmets are fitted with an external adjuster to get that fit exactly right. But most manufacturers rely on interchangeable pads of varying thickness to do this.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hubs and Rotors

There are the two main bits you have to look at:

Hub width, which with MTB's is either 135mm or 150mm wide which are the most common. This is down to how wide apart your rear dropouts are.

Axle size, which is the size of the axle that runs through your hub. Again with MTB's, it can be either;
QR OR
9mm
10mm
12mm

These can either then be bolt on axles or screw in axles such as Maxles.

These vary on different frames.

With cassettes, it depends whether you have a freehub or not. Most half decent wheels do so.

Disc brakes have two main fitting types:

Standard 6 bolts on the hub
Shimano Centerlock.

Have a look at this: http://www.sheldonbrown.com/ for some better info.
_________________________________________________________________________________________

Measuring a Frame.

If buying a mountain bike as opposed to a road bike you would as a rule buy a smaller frame.




Unsecure image, only https images allowed: http://www.womenscycling.ca/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/bike-sizing.gif
Victorian_bikeHow do you know what size of bike you need? Some bikes are measured in inches, others in centimetres. Why? Mountain bikes evolved in Californian the early ‘70s and so use the American-favoured inches. Road bikes on the other hand have a long European tradition and are always measured in centimetres. Most of the other bikes designed for the road—racing, touring, recreation, some hybrids and cyclo-cross—also use the metric system.

Measurements for bike sizes can be from the centre of the bottom bracket to the centre of the top tube or to the top of the top tube or to the top of the seat tube. And some top tubes are not horizontal but sloping. Where is the bottom bracket you ask? It is where the bike frame tubes join at the bottom with the chain stay tubes. It’s the circle in the diagram below.

Wait it gets worse. Mountain bikes have 26-inch diameter wheels (except for the 29 inch wheeled bikes created by Gary Fisher), while most road bikes have 700 cm (about 27.5-in.) so a mountain bike will seem shorter. Remember too that the height of the bottom bracket from the ground may also vary; it is higher on a mountain bike to provide extra clearance for getting over logs and lower on touring bikes to provide better stability. Yep, sizing can be confusing.

Frame Dimensions

A1 – Seat tube length (centre-to top) A2 – Seat tube length (centre to centre) B - Top tube length (centre to centre) C – Stem length (centre to centre)

sizing a road bike and mountain bikeYour height can provide a very idea of what size frame you might need, but a lot depends on how long your legs are. Two people may be the same height, but one may have longer legs than the other has and require different size frame. For example, I’m 5′4″ (162 cm) with short legs and prefer a mountain bike in the 14-15 inch range, while a friend who’s 5′3″ rides a 16 inch. In road bikes, I have ridden a 48 cm, but when I stood over the top tube, my crotch was touching it. I now happily ride a 44 cm (measured centre to centre) even though the manufacturer’s label on the frame has it as a 43 cm. Confusing eh?

What is more important to know is your standover height. You need to have at least an inch (2.54 cm) of space between your private parts and the top tube. On a mountain bike, it’s better to have 3-4 inches (7 to 10 cm) of clearance, especially if you plan to do the rough trail stuff.

To find your standover height, you need to measure your inseam or the distance from your crotch to the floor in sock feet. The simplest way is to have a friend help you. Stand close to a wall, feet about 6 in. (15 cm) apart and look straight ahead. Place a book to simulate the bike saddle between your legs and pull up firmly against your crotch. (One end of the book should be touching the wall.) Make sure the book is level then have your friend measure from the book spine to the floor. My inseam is 73.5 cm (29 in.).

For a road frame that is measured—centre to top tube centre (c-c), the general guideline is to multiply your inseam (in centimetres) by .65. For me, 73.5 x .65 = 47.7 cm frame. If I measure my frame centre to centre, it’s 45 cm. According to this formula my current bike should be too small, but it isn’t. Remember this is only a guideline; we are all built slightly different.

For a mountain bike, try a frame that is 4 to 5 inches (10-12 cm) smaller than your road frame size. For example, if you ride a 55 cm c-t road frame, look for a 17-18 inch c-t frame.

The following chart taken from Canadian Cyclist’s 2000 Buyer’s Guide provides a starting point for bike sizing. (This chart was originally adapted from Canadian national coaching certification program.)

___________________________________________________________________________________________
Credits to:

Haynes Bike Book

slyfox

sagetthegreat

marquis

almostwise

braincrush
_________________________________________________________________________________________


You can also see threads I made on:

Using Functions and how to post on Pinkbike
CLICK HERE

Mountain Biking For Beginners, and buying your first bike
CLICK HERE

Posted: Aug 11, 2010 at 13:37 Quote
Good but it doesn't cover mtb no where near enough,need rotors piggy backs and the like,maybe a difference between hydraulic and cable actuate brakes pros and cons maybe of both.?

Posted: Aug 11, 2010 at 15:20 Quote
marquis wrote:
Good but it doesn't cover mtb no where near enough,need rotors piggy backs and the like,maybe a difference between hydraulic and cable actuate brakes pros and cons maybe of both.?


Ok, cheers I'm gonna get some help on this as I'm not too sure about it.

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 4:14 Quote
Yep, I made this thread:
https://www.pinkbike.com/forum/listcomments/?threadid=105925


And slyfox helped me out, do you think the information is good?

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 4:20 Quote
kinetic-uk wrote:
Yep, I made this thread:
https://www.pinkbike.com/forum/listcomments/?threadid=105925


And slyfox helped me out, do you think the information is good?

Just replied.

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 5:18 Quote
should add rear mech on there probably

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 5:21 Quote
lew-77 wrote:
should add rear mech on there probably


Cheers man, I knew I forgot something Salute

Mod Plus
Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 6:28 Quote
Frame sizing would be a good addition. How to measure etc.

Also things like "bottom/top-out", rebound/compression/sag/pre-load etc,

Tyres - single/dual ply, different tread patterns/compounds etc, benefits of running different pressures depending on conditions/riding style.

Axles - Maxle/QR/bolt/20mm thru/Marzocchi QR20/15mm....etc

Mechs/shifters - trigger/gripshift/thumbshift/Rapid-rise, Top/bottom pull front mechs.

Bars - riser/flat, sweep, rise, width, material carbon/steel/aluminium (don't use alu with rigid fork), diameter (22.2/25.4/31.Cool

Seats - clamping methods (rails/i-beam/pivotal)

I've missed loads but will add more later when I have time. Salute

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 6:52 Quote
almostwise wrote:
Frame sizing would be a good addition. How to measure etc.

Also things like "bottom/top-out", rebound/compression/sag/pre-load etc,

Tyres - single/dual ply, different tread patterns/compounds etc, benefits of running different pressures depending on conditions/riding style.

Axles - Maxle/QR/bolt/20mm thru/Marzocchi QR20/15mm....etc

Mechs/shifters - trigger/gripshift/thumbshift/Rapid-rise, Top/bottom pull front mechs.

Bars - riser/flat, sweep, rise, width, material carbon/steel/aluminium (don't use alu with rigid fork), diameter (22.2/25.4/31.Cool

Seats - clamping methods (rails/i-beam/pivotal)

I've missed loads but will add more later when I have time. Salute


Just added frame sizing...cheers tup

Mod Plus
Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 9:53 Quote
Just thought of another couple...stem length and the effect it has on handling.

Pedalling efficiency/seat height...for the most efficient pedalling, your leg should be fully extended (but NOT stretched) when your heel is on the pedal. Then pedal with the ball of your foot in line with the pedal axle. (and why it's a good idea to lower your seat for jumping/dh etc)

Speaking of pedals...flats and clipless/SPD (Shimano Pedalling Dynamics). Don't forget to mention shoes and cleats.

Std seatposts, telescopic seatposts, suspension seatposts.

Interrupted seat-tubes. (Norco's etc)

Helmts etc should also be covered IMHO.

Terms like "pedal bob" "brake jack" etc and the systems designed to reduce them (Pro-Pedal, D.O.P.E....)

Pre and post ride checks.

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 10:15 Quote
almostwise wrote:
Just thought of another couple...stem length and the effect it has on handling.

Pedalling efficiency/seat height...for the most efficient pedalling, your leg should be fully extended (but NOT stretched) when your heel is on the pedal. Then pedal with the ball of your foot in line with the pedal axle. (and why it's a good idea to lower your seat for jumping/dh etc)

Speaking of pedals...flats and clipless/SPD (Shimano Pedalling Dynamics). Don't forget to mention shoes and cleats.

Std seatposts, telescopic seatposts, suspension seatposts.

Interrupted seat-tubes. (Norco's etc)

Helmts etc should also be covered IMHO.

Terms like "pedal bob" "brake jack" etc and the systems designed to reduce them (Pro-Pedal, D.O.P.E....)

Pre and post ride checks.


Eek I didn't think it would be this much work lol! I'll get onto the helmet part straight away, but I'm confused about the rest of the stuff as I'm a noob you see!

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 11:51 Quote
Just finished the helemt and pre ride check! My fingers and brain hurt from all this typing lol

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 12:15 Quote
Stella job,could you add that top tube length is one of the most important sizes.

Posted: Aug 12, 2010 at 12:16 Quote
marquis wrote:
Stella job,could you add that top tube length is one of the most important sizes.

Ignore this.

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